Characteristics of Vulcanizate Rubber Using Composite Latex – Modified Cassava Starch as Filler

Hari Adi Prasetya(1*), Popy Marlina(2), Arbi Dimyati(3)

(1) Palembang Institute for Industrial Research and Standardization, Jl. Perindustrian II No. 12, Sukarami, Palembang 30152, Indonesia
(2) Palembang Institute for Industrial Research and Standardization, Jl. Perindustrian II No. 12, Sukarami, Palembang 30152, Indonesia
(3) Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - BATAN, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15310, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The research on Characteristic of vulcanizate rubber using cassava starch composite (Manihot glaziovii) modification - latex as filler has been done. The composite variation of cassava starch concentration is 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 phr in three replications. Microstructure and elemental samples in SEM EDX and FTIR Spectroscopy method analysis, while physical properties using the standard testing equipment. The results showed that the concentration of cassava has a significant influence that is hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, tear resistance and ozone resistance. The best rubber hardness specification was composite with modified cassava starch concentrations of 120, 160 and 200 phr with value 57, 61 and 65 Shore A. The best tensile strength of cassava starch concentration 80 and 120 phr with value 160 and 167 kg/cm2, while the best result of the extension of cassava starch concentration elongation at break 80, 120, and 160 phr is 652, 741, and 748%, and tear resistance 80, 120, 160 and 200 phr with value 14.21, 15.96, 15.16 and 14.47. The ozone resistance for all concentrations meets the requirements of commercial vulcanizate rubber. The latex-modified cassava starch composite can be used as a filler for rubber products and as an alternative to commercial fillers.


latex; modification; rubber; starch; vulcanizate

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Rouilly, A., Rigal, L., and Gilbert, R. G., 2004, Synthesis and properties of composites of starch and chemically modified natural rubber, Polymer, 45 (23), 7813–7820.

[2] Wu, Y.P., Qi, Q., Liang, G.H., and Zhang, L.Q., 2006, A strategy to prepare high performance starch/rubber composites: In situ modification during latex compounding process, Carbohydr. Polym., 65 (1), 109–113.

[3] Wu, Y.P., Ji, M.Q., Qi, Q., Wang, Y.Q., and Zhang, L.Q., 2004, Preparation, structure, and properties of starch/rubber composites prepared by co‐coagulating rubber latex and starch paste, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 25 (4), 565–570.

[4] Nakason, C., Kaesaman, A., and Eardrod, K., 2005, Cure and mechanical properties of natural rubber–g-poly(methyl methacrylate)–cassava starch compounds, Mater. Lett., 59 (29-30), 4020–4025.

[5] Li, H., Song, Y, and Zheng, Q., 2008, Effect of incorporating starch/silica compound fillers into uncured SSBR on its dynamic rheological properties, Chin. J. Polym. Sci., 26 (6), 751–757.

[6] Afiq, M.M, and Azura, A.R., 2013, Effect of sago starch loadings on soil decomposition of Natural Rubber Latex (NRL) composite films mechanical properties, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 85, 139–149.

[7] Rajisha, K.R., Maria, H.J., Pothan, L.A., Ahmad, Z., and Thomas, S., 2014, Preparation and characterization of potato starch nanocrystal reinforced natural rubber nanocomposites, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 67, 147–153.

[8] Peng, Y.K., 2007, The Effect of Carbon Black and Silica Fillers on Cure Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Breaker Compounds, Thesis, University Science Malaysia, Malaysia.

[9] Chuayjuljit, S., Eiumnoh, S., and Potiyaraj, P., 2001, Using silica from rice husk as a reinforcing filler in natural rubber, J. Sci. Res. Chula. Univ., 26 (2), 127–138.

[10] Omofuma, F.E., Adeniye, S.A., and Adeleke, A.E., 2011, The effect of particle sizes on the performance of filler: A case study of rice husk and wood flour, World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (9), 1347–1352.

[11] Vichitcholchai, N., Na-ranong, N., Noisuwan, W., and Arayapranee, W., 2012, Using rice husk ash as filler in rubber industry, Rubber Thai J., 1, 49–54.

[12] Haghighat, M., Khorasani, S.N., and Zadhoush, A., 2007, Filler–rubber interactions in α-cellulose-filled styrene butadiene rubber composites, Polym. Compos., 28 (6), 748–754.

[13] Sareena, C., Ramesan, M.T., and Purusotaman, E., 2012, Utilization of coconut shell powder as a novel filler in natural rubber, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 31 (8), 533–547.

[14] Gamage, N.J.W., 2011, Use of coconut shell charcoal dust as a filler in the rubber industry, Thesis, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.

[15] Rekso, G.T., 2014, Chemical and physical properties of cassava starch–CM-chitosan–acrylic acid gel copolymerization by gamma irradiation, Indones. J. Chem., 14 (1), 37–42.

[16] Qi, Q., Wu, Y., Tian, M., Liang, G., Zang, L., and Ma, J., 2006, Modification of starch for high performance elastomer, Polymer, 47 (11), 3896–3903.

[17] Taghvaei, G.S., Motiee, F., Shakeri, E., and Abbasian, A., 2010, Effect of amylose/amylopectin ratio on physico-mechanical properties of rubber compounds filled by starch, J. Appl. Chem. Res., 4 (14), 53–60.

[18] Wang, Z.F., Peng, Z., Li, S.D., Lin, H., Zhang, K.X., Dong, X., and Fu, X., 2009, The impact of esterification on the properties of starch/natural rubber composite, Compos. Sci. Technol., 69 (11-12), 1797–1803.

[19] Angellier, H., Molina‐Boisseau, S., and Dufresne, A., 2006, Waxy maize starch nanocrystals as filler in natural rubber, Macromol. Symp., 233 (1), 132–136.

[20] Liu, C., Shao, Y., and Jia, D., 2008, Chemically modified starch reinforced natural rubber composites, Polymer, 49 (8), 2176–2181.

[21] Wang, Z.F., Fang, L., Zang, K.X., and Fu, X., 2008, Application and research progress of starch in polymer materials, J. Clin. Rehabil. Tissue Eng. Res., 12 (19), 3789–3792.

[22] Vudjung, C., Chaisuwan, U., Pangan, U., Chaipugdee, N., Boonyod, S., Santawitee, O., and Saengsuwan, S., 2014, Effect of natural rubber contents on biodegradation and water absorption of Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) hydrogel from natural rubber and cassava starch, Energy Procedia, 56, 255–263.

[23] Wang, Z.F., Li, S.D., Fu, X., Lin, H., She, X.D., and Huang, J., 2010, Thermal stability and mechanical properties of modified starch/NR composite, e-Polymers, 10 (1), 115.

[24] Ratnayake, W.S., and Jackson, D.S., 2009, Starch Gelatinization, Adv. Food Nutr. Res., 55, 221–268.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1589 | views : 1833

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.