Recovery of Fermented Spinach (Amaranthus sp.) Concentrate Through Ultrafiltration Membrane Process as Source of Folic Acid for Smart Food Formula

Aspiyanto Aspiyanto(1*), Agustine Susilowati(2), Puspa Dewi Lotulung(3), Hakiki Melanie(4), Yati Maryati(5)

(1) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong – 15314, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
(2) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong – 15314, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
(3) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong – 15314, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
(4) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong – 15314, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
(5) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong – 15314, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Fermentation process on spinach (Amaranthus sp.) by Kombucha culture was done as an effort to recover naturally folic acid as bioactive components to increase smartness. The experimental activity was done by means of UF membrane (100,000 MWCO) fitted in Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) at stirrer rotation speed 200 and 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 20 and 40 Psi for 30 min. Result of experimental activity showed that based on both selectivity and recovery of folic acid, process optimization of UF was reached at stirrer rotation speed 200 rpm and pressure 40 Psi. In the optimum condition, SUFC technique was able to recover folic acid in retentate 67.75% and in permeate 97.27% (63.19 µg/mL). Identification of monomer in permeate from the optimum process treatment was find out folic acid monomer with molecular weight (MW) 441.39 and relative intensity 93% at mass spectra T2.32 between m/z 257–304 and glutamic acids monomer with MW 148.57 and relative intensity 0.22% at mass spectra T2.82 between m/z 415–470. Other dominant monomer were folic acid fraction.


fermented spinach (Amaranthus sp.); Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC); permeate; concentrate; folic acid

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Ural, and Serdar, H., 2008, Folic Acid and Pregnancy, Kid's Health,, Accessed on April 18, 2017, 11.49.

[2] Anonymous, 2012, Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Folate, Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health,, Accessed on December 8, 2014.

[3] Jayabalan, R., Subathradevi, P., Marimuthu, S., Sathshkumar, M., and Swaminathan, K., 2008, Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation, Food Chem., 109 (1), 227–234.

[4] Jayabalan, R., Malbaša, R.V., Lončar, E.S., Vitas, J.S., and Sathishkumar, M., 2014, A Review on Kombucha tea–microbiology, composition, fermentation, beneficial effects, toxicity, and tea fungus, Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 13 (4), 538–550.

[5] de Crécy-Lagard V., El Yacoubi, B., de la Garza, R.D., Noiriel, A., and Hanson, A.D., 2007, Comparative genomics of bacterial and plant folate synthesis and salvage: Predictions and validations, BMC Genomics, 8, 245.

[6] Hauser, P.M., and Macreadie, I.G., 2006, Isolation of the Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate synthase gene and functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 256 (2), 244–250.

[7] Rezzadori, K., Serpa, L., Penha, F.M., Petrus, R.R., and Petrus, J.C.C., 2014, Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice - effects of processing conditions and juice quality, Food Sci. Technol., 34 (1), 210–217.

[8] Susilowati, A., Aspiyanto and Melanie, H., 2017, Characterization of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Amaranthus sp.) produced using microfiltration membrane as folic acid source for smart food formula, MATEC Web Conf., 101, 01005.

[9] Humpert, D., Ebrahimi, M., and Czermak, P., 2016, Membrane technology for the recovery of lignin: A review, Membranes, 6 (3), E42.

[10] Pinto, P.C.R., Mota, I.F., Loureiro, J.M., and Rodrigues, A.E., 2014, Membrane performance and application of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration to ethanol/water extract of Eucalyptus bark, Sep. Purif. Technol., 132, 234–243.

[11] Wickramasinghe, S.R., Bower, S.E., Chen, Z., Mukherjee, A., and Husson, S.M., 2009, Relating the pore size distribution of ultrafiltration membranes to dextran rejection, J. Membr. Sci., 340 (1-2), 1–8.

[12] Massé, A., Thi, H.N., Legentilhomme, P., and Jaouen, P., 2011, Dead-end and tangential ultrafiltration of natural salted water: Influence of operating parameters on specific energy consumption, J. Membr. Sci., 380 (1-2), 192–198.

[13] Anonymous, 2008, Catalogue and Manual of Stirred Ultrafiltration Cells, Amicon Bioseparations, MILLIPORE, U.S.A.

[14] Anonymous, 1995, Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, Washington D.C.

[15] Pope, C.G., and Stevens, M.F., 1989, The determination of amino-nitrogen using a copper method, Biochem. J., 33 (7), 1070–1077.

[16] Gani, A., Prasad, K., Ahmad, M., and Gani, A., 2016, Time-dependent extraction kinetics of infused components of different Indian black tea types using UV spectroscopy, Cogent Food Agric., 2 (1), 1–9.

[17] Ruengsitagoon, W., and Hattanat, N., 2012, Simple spectrophotometric method for determination of folic acid, The 4th Annual Northeast Pharmacy Research Conference, February 11–12, 2012, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

[18] Eichhorn, P., and Knepper, T.P., 2001, Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric studies on the amphoteric surfactant cocamidopropylbetaine, J. Mass Spectrom., 36 (6), 677–684.

[19] Susilowati, A., Iskandar, J.M., Melanie, H., Maryati, Y., Lotulung, P.D., and Aryani, D.G., 2015, Pengembangan konsentrat sayuran hijau dan kacang-kacangan terfermentasi pada jagung (Zea mays L.) pramasak sebagai sumber asam folat untuk formula pangan pintar, Research Report, Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences.

[20] Aspiyanto, Susilowati, A., Iskandar, J.M., Melanie, H., Maryati, Y., and Lotulung, P.D., 2016, Characteristic of fermented spinach (Amaranthus spp.) polyphenol by Kombucha culture for antioxidant compound, Conf. Proc. Int. Symp. Appl. Chem. 2016 (ISAC 2016), Tangerang, October 3–5 2016.

[21] Marchetti, P., Solomon, M.F.J., Szekely, G., and Livingston, A.G., 2014, Molecular separation with organic solvent nanofiltration: A critical review, Chem. Rev., 114 (21), 10735–10806.

[22] Bilad, M.R., 2010, Teknologi membran untuk aplikasi BRM,, Accessed on October 25, 2011.

[23] Susilowati, A., Aspiyanto, Melanie, H., and Maryati, Y., 2010, Green tea (Camellia assamica) concentrate as a source of L-theanine used in kombucha fermentation for relaxation drink, Menara Perkebunan, 78 (2), 75–83.

[24] Susilowati, A., Aspiyanto, Maryati, Y., and Melanie, H., 2016, Characteristic of kombucha tea concentrate purified through stirred microfiltration cell (SMFC) from local green tea (Camellia sp.) as functional drink for relaxation, Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina, 19 (1), 67–84.

[25] Belitz, H.D., Grosch, W., and Schieberle, P., 2009, Food Chemistry, 4th revised and extended ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2210 | views : 2105

Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.