Potency of Stirred Microfiltration Cell in Separation of Fermented Beans as Protein Isolate for Natural Source of Folic Acid


Aspiyanto Aspiyanto(1*), Agustine Susilowati(2), Puspa Dewi Lotulung(3), Hakiki Melanie(4), Yati Maryati(5)

(1) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(2) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(3) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(4) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(5) Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(*) Corresponding Author


Protein isolate from soy bean (Glycine soja L.) tempeh, mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) tempeh and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) tempeh are natural source of folic acid with main role in brain smartness. 0.15 µm microfiltration (MF) membrane fitted in dead-end stirred microfiltration cell (SMFC) was able to separate protein isolate from three (3) kinds of tempeh at stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. The result of experimental work showed that SMFC had potential use in separation of protein isolate affected by kinds of bean and membrane performance on isolate composition in retentate and permeate. SMFC was able to retain better protein isolate in retentate than that passing across permeate. Retentate of protein isolate from soy bean tempeh, mung bean tempeh and kidney bean tempeh had subsequently compositions of folic acid 362.07, 254.07 and 506.07 µg/mL, total solids 5.56, 4.08 and 1.82 %, N-Amino 4.34, 3.36 and 0.56 mg/mL, and dissolved protein 0.79, 0.34 and 0.72 mg/mL. In this process condition, SMFC was able to increase folic acid in protein isolate retentate of soy tempeh of 0.59 times, mung bean tempeh of 1.1 times and kydney bean tempeh of 1.42 times before purification process in retentate. Based on both SMFC performance and efficiency, all the best purification optimization were obtained kidney beans tempeh. Identification of monomer of kidney bean tempeh protein isolate gave monomers of folic acid, glutamic acid and folic acid fractionation with molecular weight of 443.5797, 148.1643 and 221.2132 Da. and relative intensity of 1.28, 50.11 and 7.05 %, respectively.


stirred microfiltration cell (SMFC); folic acid; glutamic acid; tempeh; isolat protein

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Nugraha, T., Susilowati, A., Aspiyanto, Lotulung P.D., and Maryati, Y., 2017, Characterization of biomasses, concentrates, and permeates of dried powder of Kombucha fermentation of spinach (amaranthus sp.) and broccoli (brassica oleracea) with membrane microfiltration and freeze drying techniques for natural sources of folic acid, AIP Conf. Proc., 1904, 020023.

[2] Tamime, A.Y., 2013, Membrane Processing: Dairy and Beverage Applications, Wiley-Blackwell, 370.

[3] Kumar, P., Sharma, N., Ranjan, R., Kumar, S., Bhat, Z.F., and Jeong, D.K., 2013, Perspective of membrane technology in dairy industry: A review, Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 26 (9), 1347–358.

[4] Jegatheesan, V., Shu, L., Keir, G., and Phong, D.D., 2012, Evaluating membrane technology for clarification of sugarcane juice, Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol., 11 (2), 109–124.

[5] Aspiyanto, Susilowati, A., Iskandar, Y.M., and Maryati, Y., 2009, Potential use of microfiltration membrane in separation of amino acids as savory fraction from extract of vegetable broth of mung beans (Phaseolus radiatus l.) through brine fermentation by Aspergillus sp-K3 and Rhizopus-C1, J. Appl. Ind. Biotechnol. Trop. Reg., 2 (1), 1–7 (Special Edition).

[6] Rao, L., Hayat, K., Lv, L., Karangwa, E., Xia, S., and Jia, C.S., 2011, Effect of ultrafiltration and fining adsorbents on the clarification of green tea, J. Food Eng., 102 (4), 321–326.

[7] Ghosh, R., 2003, “Ultrafiltration: An overview” in Protein Bioseparation Using Ultrafiltration: Theory, Applications and New Developments, Imperial College Press, London, UK, 13–15.

[8] AOAC, 2016, Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, 20th Ed., Washington D.C.

[9] Pope, C.G., and Stevens M.F., 1939, The determination of amino nitrogen using copper method, Biochem. J., 33 (7), 1070–1077.

[10] Ruengsitagoon, W., and Hattanat, N., 2012, Simple spectrophotometric method for determination of folic acid, The 4th Annual Northeast Pharmacy Research Conference “Pharmacy Profession in Harmony", Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, 11-12 February 2012, 281.

[11] Eichhorn, P., and Knepper, T.P., 2001, Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric studies on the amphoteric surfactant cocamido propylbetaine, J. Mass Spectrom., 36 (6), 677–684.

[12] Susilowati, A., Iskandar, J.M., Melanie, H., Maryati, Y., Lotulung, P.D., and Aryani, D.G., 2015, Pengembangan konsentrat sayuran hijau dan kacang-kacangan terfermentasi pada jagung (Zea mays L.) pramasak sebagai sumber asam folat untuk formula pangan pintar, Research Report, Research Center for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of Sciences.

[13] Anonymous, 2008, Catalogue and Manual of Stirred Ultrafiltration Cells, Amicon Bioseparations, MILLIPORE, U.S.A.

[14] Susilowati, A., Aspiyanto and Melanie, H., 2017, Characterization of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Amaranthus sp.) produced using microfiltration membrane as folic acid source for smart food formula, MATEC Web Conf., 101, 01005.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.25164

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2898 | views : 2186

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.