Effect of Soaking Treatment on Anthocyanin, Flavonoid, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Dioscorea alata Flour


Ratnaningsih Ratnaningsih(1*), Nur Richana(2), Sakae Suzuki(3), Yoshiharu Fujii(4)

(1) Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development, Jl. Tentara Pelajar no.12 Cimanggu, Bogor 16114, Indonesia
(2) Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development, Jl. Tentara Pelajar no.12 Cimanggu, Bogor 16114, Indonesia
(3) Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
(4) Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
(*) Corresponding Author


Purple Dioscorea alata is one kind of tuber crops that rich in polyphenolic compounds. In Indonesia, the utilization of this yam is still very limited because it is easily damaged on the fresh form. Due to its high perishability, then the fresh tuber have to be processed into dried materials to expand its utilization. This study investigated the effect of browning inhibition treatments (immersion in water, Na-bisulfite, and ascorbic acid) on moisture, color, anthocyanin, flavonoid and phenolic content, and determined the antioxidant activities of D. alata flour. The moisture content of D. alata flour ranged between 6.89 to 7.71% db, which still in the range of wheat flour moisture content standards using Codex Standard. Browning inhibition treatment improved the color appearances and provided better values on anthocyanin, phenolic, and flavonoid content of D. alata flour. The color and antioxidant activities of D. alata flour were significantly correlated with its functional properties.


Dioscorea alata flour; anthocyanin; flavonoid; phenolic; antioxidant activity

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Lebot, V., Malapa, R., Molisale, T., and Marchand, J.L., 2006, Physico-chemical characterisation of yam (Dioscorea alata L.) tubers from Vanuatu, Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., 53 (6), 1199–1208

[2] Chung, Y.C., Chiang, B.H., Wei, J.H., Wang, C.K., Chen, P.C., and Hsu, C.K., 2008, Effect of blanching, drying and extraction processes on the antioxidant activity of yam (Dioscorea alata), Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 43 (5), 859–864.

[3] Behera, K.K., Maharana, T., Sahoo, S.L., and Prusti, A., 2009, Biochemical quantification of protein, fat, starch, crude fiber, ash and dry matter content in different collection of greater yam (Dioscorea alata L.) found in Orissa, Nat. Sci., 7 (7), 24–32.

[4] Winarti, S., Harmayani, E., and Nurismanto, R., 2011, Karakteristik dan profil inulin beberapa jenis uwi (Dioscorea spp.), Agritech, 31 (4), 378–383.

[5] Martin, F.W., and Ruberte, R., 1976, Polyphenol of Dioscorea alata (yam) tubers associated with oxidative browning, J. Agric. Food Chem., 24 (1), 67–70.

[6] Fang, Z., Wu, D., Yü, D., Ye, X., Liu, D. and Chen, J., 2011, Phenolic compounds in Chinese purple yam and changes during vacuum frying, Food Chem., 128 (4), 943–948.

[7] Ozo, O.N., Caygill, J.C., and Coursey, D.G., 1984, Phenolics of five yam (Dioscorea) species, Phytochemistry, 23 (2), 329–331.

[8] Champagne, A., Hilbert, G., Legendre, L., and Lebot, V., 2011, Diversity of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds among tropical root crops from Vanuatu, South Pacific, J. Food Compos. Anal., 24 (3), 315–325.

[9] Lionetto, M.G., Giordano, M.E., Calisi, A., Erroi, E., De Nuccio, F., and Schettino, T., 2011, Effect of the daily ingestion of a purified anthocyanin extract from grape skin on rat serum antioxidant capacity, Physiol. Res., 60 (4), 637–645.

[10] Cornago, D.F., Rumbaoa, R.G.O., and Geronimo, I., 2011, Philippine yam (Dioscorea spp.) tubers phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, Philipp. J. Sci., 140 (2), 145–152.

[11] Hu, K., Yao, X.S, Dong, A.J., Kobayashi, H., Iwasaki, S. and Jing, Y.K., 1999, A new pregnane from Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca, J. Nat. Prod., 62 (2), 299–301.

[12] Kelmanson, J.E., Jager, A.K., and van Standen, J., 2000, Zulu medicinal plants with antibacterial activity, J. Ethnopharmacol., 69 (3), 241–246.

[13] Hikino, H., Konno, C., Takahashi, M., Murakami, M., Kato, Y., Karikura, M., and Hayashi, T., 1986, Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of dioscorans A, B, C, D, E, and F; glycans of Dioscorea japonica rhizophors, Planta Med., 52 (3), 168–171.

[14] Araghiniknam, M., Chung, S., Nelson-White, T., Eskelson, C., and Watson, R.R., 1996, Antioxidant activity of dioscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans, Life Sci., 59 (11), 147–157.

[15] Akissoe, N., Hounhouigan, J., Mestres, C., and Nago, M., 2003, How blanching and drying affect the color and functional characteristics of yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata) flour, Food Chem., 82 (2), 257–264.

[16] Almenteros, V.P., and Del Rosatio, R.R., 1985, Phenolic content and polyphenoloxidase activity related to browning in yam (Dioscorea alata Linn.), Philipp. Agric., 68, 449–452.

[17] Zhang, X., and Shao, X., 2015, Characterisation of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase and the role in browning of loquat fruit, Czech J. Food Sci., 33 (2), 109–117.

[18] Severini, C., Baiano, A., De Pilli, T., Romaniello, R., and Derossi, A., 2003, Prevention of enzymatic browning in sliced potatoes by blanching in boiling saline solutions, LWT Food Sci. Technol., 36 (7), 657–667.

[19] Altunkaya, A., and Gökmen, V., 2008, Effect of various inhibitors on enzymatic browning, anti-oxidant activity and total phenol content of fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Food Chem., 107 (3), 1173–1179.

[20] Ahmed, M., Akter, M.S., and Eun, J.B., 2010, Peeling, drying temperature, and sulphite-treatment affect physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of sweet potato flour, Food Chem., 121 (1), 112–118.

[21] Arogundade, L.A., and Mu, T.H., 2012, Influence of oxidative browning inhibitors and isolation techniques on sweet potato protein recovery and composition, Food Chem., 134 (3), 1374–1384.

[22] McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Otwell, W.S., 1992, Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 32 (3), 253–273.

[23] Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC), 1990, Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 14th ed., AOAC, Inc., Washington DC.

[24] Giusti, M.M., and Wrolstad, R.E., 2001, “Characterization and Measurement of Anthocyanins by UV-Visible Spectroscopy” in Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, Giusti, M.M., and Wrolstad, R.E., Eds., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1–13.

[25] Lee, J., Durst, R.W., and Wrolstad, R.E., 2005, Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: Collaborative study, J. AOAC Int., 88 (5), 1269–1278.

[26] Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M., 1999, Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and anti-oxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, Methods Enzymol., 299 (1), 152–178.

[27] Jothy, S.L., Zuraini, Z., and Sasidharan, S., 2011, Phytochemicals screening, DPPH free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of Cassia fistula seeds extract, J. Med. Plants Res., 5 (10), 1941–1947.

[28] Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., and Jianming, W., 1999, The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals, Food Chem., 64 (4), 555–559.

[29] Hsu, C.L., Chen, W., Weng, Y.M., and Tseng, C.Y., 2003, Chemical composition, physical properties, and antioxidant activities of yam flours as affected by different drying methods, Food Chem., 83 (1), 85–92.

[30] Chen, Y.T., and K.W. Lin, 2007, Effect of heating temperature on the total phenolic compound, antioxidative ability and the stability of dioscorin of various yam cultivars, Food Chem., 101 (3), 955–963.

[31] Huang, C.C., Lin, M.C., and Wang, C.C.R., 2006, Changes in morphological, thermal, and pasting properties of yam (Dioscorea alata) starch during growth, Carbohydr. Polym., 64 (4), 524–531.

[32] Bhandari, M.R., Kasai, T., and Kawabata, J., 2003, Nutritional evaluation of wild yam (Dioscorea spp.) tubers of Nepal, Food Chem., 82 (4), 619–623.

[33] Utomo, J.S., Man, Y.B.C., Rahman, R.A., and Saad, M.S., 2008, The effect of shape, blanching methods and flour on characteristics of restructured sweet potato stick, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 43 (10), 1896–1900.

[34] Li, Y., and Zhao, M., 2005, Simple methods for rapid determination of sulfite in food products, Food Control, 17 (12), 975–980.

[35] Shih, M.C., Kuo, C.C., and Chiang, W., 2009, Effects of drying and extrusion on colour, chemical composition, antioxidant activities and mitogenic response of spleen lymphocytes of sweet potatoes, Food Chem., 117 (1), 114–121.

[36] Khanam, U.K.S., Oba, S., Yanase, E., and Murakami, Y., 2012, Phenolic acids, flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity of selected leafy vegetables, J. Funct. Foods, 4 (4), 979–987.

[37] Cartea, M.E., Francisco, M., Soengas, P., and Velasco, P., 2011, Phenolic compounds in Brassica vegetables, Molecules, 16(1), 251–280.

[38] Soison, B., Jangchud, K., Jangchud, A., Harnsilawat, T., Piyachomkwan, K., Charunuch, C., and Prinyawiwatkul, W., 2014, Physico-functional and antioxidant properties of purple-flesh sweet potato flour as affected by extrusion and drum-drying treatments, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 49 (9), 2067–2075.

[39] Nasir, M., Butt, M.S., Anjum, F.M., Sharif, K., and Minhas, R, 2003, Effect of moisture on the shelf life of wheat flour, Int. J. Agric. Biol., 5 (4), 458–459.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.23945

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 532 | views : 320

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.