Supramolecular Phosphorescent Trinuclear Copper(I) Pyrazolate Complexes for Vapochromic Chemosensors of Ethanol

Hendrik Oktendy Lintang(1*), Nur Fatiha Ghazalli(2), Leny Yuliati(3),

(1) Ma Chung University, Malang, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor
(3) Ma Chung Research Center for Photosynthetic Pigments, Universitas Ma Chung, Malang 65151, East Java
(*) Corresponding Author


We highlight that by using supramolecular single crystals of phosphorescent trinuclear copper(I) pyrazolate complexes with different molecular structures (2A-E), vapochromic chemosensors were successfully designed for sensing ethanol with high sensing capability. These complexes 2A-E were synthesized from non-side chain, 3,5-dimethyl, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl), 3,5-diphenyl and 4-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-3,5-dimethyl pyrazole ligands (1A-E) in 83, 97, 99, 88 and 85% yields, respectively. All complexes showed emission bands centered at 553, 584, 570 and 616 nm upon an excitation at 280 nm for complexes 2A-C,E, respectively and 642 nm upon an excitation at 321 nm for complex 2D with lifetime in microseconds, indicating a large Stoke shift for phosphorescent compounds. These emission spectra were in good agreement with their colors from green to red upon exposure to a UV lamp with an excitation at 254 nm in dark room. Upon exposure to ethanol in 5 min, quenching, photoinduced energy transfer and shifting of emission intensities were observed for chemosensors 2A-C, 2D and 2E, respectively. Interestingly, chemosensor 2E only showed completely and autonomously recovery of its original emission intensity. Such novel finding in sensing capability might be caused by a weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction of ethanol to oxygen atoms at dimethoxybenzyl side-chains of the pyrazole ring.


ethanol; phosphorescent properties; trinuclear copper(I) pyrazolate complexes; vapochromic chemosensor

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