H. Rosniza(1*), M. A. Bakar(2), S. Abdul Hamid(3), J. Ismail(4)

(1) Nanoscience Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
(2) Nanoscience Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
(3) Nanoscience Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
(4) Nanoscience Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


A nanocomposite comprising cyclopentyl trisilanol silsesquioxanes (CpSSQ(OH)3) and 50% epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) was prepared at reflux temperature with Tin (II) chloride dihydrate (SnCl2.2H2O) as catalyst. SnCl2.2H2O was found to be an affective catalyst to promote ring opening in ENR-50 and tailored it to CpSSQ(OH)3 via chemical reaction. The generation of carbonyl functional groups arising from epoxide ring opening can be clearly seen in FTIR spectra. 1H and 29Si NMR analyses further proved that the incorporation of CpSSQ(OH)3 in  ENR-50 occured. TGA studies showed a degradation temperature with 10% weight decreased and DSC thermogram indicates a single Tg. Single peak in XRD diffractogram at 2-Theta angle further confirmed the surface modification.


silsesquioxanes; ENR-50; oxirane ring opening; hybrid

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1]   Drylie, E.A., Andrews, C.D., Hearshaw, M.A., Jimenez-Rodriguez, C., Slawin, A., Cole-Hamilton, D.J., and Morris, R.E., 2006, Polyhedron, 25, 853-858.

[2]   Sellinger, A., and  Laine, R.M., 1996, Macro-molecules, 29, 2327-2330.

[3]   Lorenz, V., Spoida, M., Fisher, A., and Edelmann, F.T., 2001, J. Organomet. Chem., 625, 1-6.

[4]   Pescarmona, P.P., 2003, An Exploration Of Silsesquioxanes And Zeolites Using High-Speed Experimentation, Università di Torino (PhD), Itali.

[5]   Liu, S., Lang, X., Ye, H., Zhang, S., and Zhao, J.,  2005, Eur. Polym. J., 41, 996-1001.

[6]   Abe, Y., and  Gunji, T.,  2004, Prog. Polym. Sci., 29, 149-182.

[7]   Feher, F.J., Budzichowski, T.A., Blanski, R.L., Weller, K.J., and Ziller, J.W., 1991, Organo-mettallics, 10, 2526-2528.

[8]   Feher, F.J., Newman, D.A., and Walzer, J.F., 1989,  J. Am. Chem. Soc., 111, 1741-1748.

[9]   Feher, F.J., Terroba, R., Jin, R.Z., Lucke, S., Nguyen, F., Brutchey, R., and Wyndham, K.D., 2000, Major Advances In The Synthesis Of POSS Monomers. in Material Resource Social Symposium. Material Research Society.

[10] Hillson, S.D., Smith, E., Zeldin, M., and Parish, C.A.,  2005,  J. Phys. Chem. A, 109, 8371-8373.

[11] Seçkіn, T., Gültek, A., and Köytepe, S., 2005, Turkey J. Chem., 29, 49-59.

[12] Hany, R., Hartmann, R.,  Bohlen, C.,  Branden-berger, S., Kawada, J., Lowe, C., Zinn, M.,  Witholt, B., and Marchessault, R.H., 2005, Chem. Polym., 46, 5025-5031.

[13] Gelling, I.R., 1991, J. Nat. Rubber Res., 6, 184-205.

[14] Baker, C.S.L., and Gelling, I.R., 1987, Development Of Rubber Technology. Epoxidized Natural Rubber. Vol. Volume 4. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Chapter 3.

[15] Burfield, D.R., Lim, K.L., and Law, K.S., 1984, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.,  29, 1661-1673.

[16] Li, S.D., Chen, Y., Zhou, J., Li, P.S., Zhu, C.S., and Lin, M.L., 1998, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.,  67, 2207-2211.

[17] Ismail, J., and  Abu Bakar, M., 2005, Natural Rubber - The Chemistry Of A Resilient Comodity. Materials: From Fundamentals To Applications. In Research at Universiti Sains Malaysia, 5, 58-71.

[18] Lee, H.K., Ismail, J., Kammer, H.W., and Bakar, M.A., 2005, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 95, 113-129.

[19] Baker, C.L.S., Gelling, I.R., and Newell, R., 1984,  Rubber Chem. & Techn., 58 p. 67-73.

[20] Liu, Y.L., Hsu, C.Y., Wang, M.L., and Chen, H.S., Nanotechnology, 2003. 14, 813-819.

[21] Ismail, J.B., Hashim, A.S., and Maidunny, Z.A., 1997, Thermal Behaviour Of Epoxidised Natural Rubber. in International Rubber Conference.

[22] Launer, P.J., 1987, Infrared Analysis Of Organosilicon Compounds: Spectra Structure Correlations. Silicone Compounds Register and Review, 100-103.

[23] Choi, J., Harcup, J., Yee, A.F., Zhu, Q., and Laine, R.M., 2001,  J. Am. Chem. Soc., 123, 11420-11430.

[24] Poh, B.T., and  Lee, K.S., 1994, Eur. Polym. J., 30, 17-23.

[25] Ratnam, C.T., Nasir, M., Baharin, A., and Zaman, K., 2000, Polym. Int., 49, 1693-1701.

[26] Bradbury, J.H., and  Perera, M.C.S., 1985, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 30, 3347-3364.

[27] Saito, T., Klinklai, W., and Kawahara, S., Characterization Of Epoxidized Natural Rubber By 2D NMR Spectroscopy. Polymer. In Press, Corrected Proof.

[28] Davidson, G., 1991, Group Theory For Chemists. London: MacMillan Education Ltd.

[29] Bruice, P.Y., 2001, Organic Chemistry. 3rd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

[30] Macomber, R.G., 1998, A Complete Introduction To Modern NMR Spectroscopy. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[31] Kegley, S.E. and  Pinhas, A.R., 1986, Problems And Solution In Organometallic Chemistry. California: Oxford University Press.

[32] Mori, H., Lanzendorfer, M.G., and Muller, A.H.E.,  2004,Macromolecules, 37, 5228-5238.

[33] Schnabel, W., 1981, Polymer Degradation Principle And Practical Applications. New York: Hanser International.

[34] Fina, A., Tabuani, D.,  Carniato, F.,  Frache, A.,  Boccaleri, E., and Camino, G., 2006, Thermochim. Acta, 440, 36-42.

[35] Fina, A., Abbenhuis, H.C.L.,  Tabuani, D., Frache, A.,  and Camino, G.,  2006. Polym. Degradation & Stability, 91(5), 1064-1070.

[36] Brown, M.E., 2001, Introduction To Thermal Analysis. Techniques And Application. 2nd edition ed. The Netherland: Kluwer Academic Press.

[37] Gallagher, P.K., 1998, Handbook Of Thermal Analysis And Calorimetry. Principles And Practice, ed. M.E. Brown. Vol. Volume 1. The Netherlands: Elsevier Science B.V.

[38] Salgueiro, W., Somozaa, A., Marzocca, A.J., Consolati, G., and Quasso, F., 2007, Radiation Phys. & Chem., 76, 142-145.

[39] Lee, Y.S., Lee, W.-K., Cho, S.-G., Kim, I., and Ha, C.-S., 2007, J. Anal. & Appl. Pyrolysis, 78(1), 85-94.

[40] Gultek, A., Seckin, T., and Adilguzel, H.I., 2005, Turkey J. Chem., 29, 391-399.

[41] Arroyo, M., Lopez-Manchado, M.A., Valentin, J.L. , and Carretero, J., Morphology/Behaviour Relation-ship Of Nanocomposites Based On Natural Rubber/Epoxidized Natural Rubber Blends. Composites Science and Technology. In Press, Corrected Proof.

[42] Fina, A., Tabuani, D., Frache, A., and Camino, G.,  2005,  Polym, 46, 7855-7866.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 394 | views : 361

Copyright (c) 2010 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.