Modification of Three Types of Bentonite with Zirconium Oxide Chloride (ZOC) of Local Products Using Intercalation Process

Muzakky Muzakky(1*), Supriyanto C(2)

(1) Center for Accelerator Science and Technology-National Nuclear Energy Agency, Babarsari no 21, POB 6101 YKBB, Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Center for Accelerator Science and Technology-National Nuclear Energy Agency, Babarsari no 21, POB 6101 YKBB, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author


Three types of bentonite modified with ZOC local products of Center for Accelerator Science and Technology-National Nuclear Energy Agency using intercalation process have been done. The purpose of this research is to create new material as a catalyst or industrial raw materials. Existance of chloride anion on the intercalation process product was releasing with water and titration using silver nitrate. The release of alkali and alkaline earth cations and Fe3+, Al3+ and Zn3+ into the water phase (WP) and the solids phase (SP) was detected by atomic absorption Spectrometry (AAS). While X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) was to observe of Zr intercalated to bentonite layer. Modificated products were form of a porous material and their measured as micro, meso and macro pores using Surface Area Analysis (SAA) and the image of the porous material was observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Intercalation process products obtained were porous materials with a porous size of 1.50-1.55 nm at bentonite-3 with a pore area of 2250 (m2/Å/g) and TEM image of the 50 nm was the most transparent among the others. As for the pores size of 1.60-1.97 nm to meso pores size of 2.0-50.0 nm were dominated by bentonite 2 with a maximum of pore 1250 (m2/Å/g). While the results of the TEM image of bentonite 2, although their porous degree were small they have the pores size distribution of 5.7% micro-pore, 52.5% meso-pore and 41.7% macro-pore.


intercalation; release; micro-pores; meso-pores; macro-pores

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Emam, E.A., 2011, ARPN J. Sci. Technol., 3 (4), 356–375.

[2] Jamhour, R.M.A.Q., 2014, Can. Chem. Trans., 2 (3), 306–315.

[3] Hoidy, W.H., Ahmad, M.B., Al Mulla, E.A.J., and Ibrahim, N.A., 2010, Orient. J. Chem., 26 (2), 409–414,

[4] Franco, R.W.A., Brasil, C.A., Mantovani, G.L., de Azevedo, E.R., and Bonagamba, T.J., 2013, Materials, 6 (1), 47–64.

[5] Gil, A., Korili, S.A., Trujillano, R., and Vicente, M.A., 2010, Pillared Clays and Related Catalysts, Springer-Verlag New York.

[6] Ouellet-Plamondon, C.M., Stasiak, J., and Al-Tabbaa, A., 2014, Colloids Surf.A, 444, 330–337.

[7] Elkhalifah, A.E.I., Maitra, S., Bustam, M.A., and Murugesan, T., 2013, Appl. Clay Sci., 83-84, 391–398.

[8] Timofeeva, M.N., Panchenko, V.N., Gil, A., Doronin, V.P., Golovin, A.V., Andreev, A.S., and Likholobov, V.A., 2011, Appl. Catal., B, 104 (1-2), 54–63.

[9] Bahranowski, K., Włodarczyk, W., Wisła-Walsh, E., Gaweł, A., Matusik, J., Klimek, A., Gil, B., Michalik-Zym, A., Dula, R., Socha, R.P., and Serwicka, E.M., 2015, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 202, 155–164.

[10] Michalik-Zym, A., Dula, R., Duraczyńska, D., Kryściak-Czerwenka, J., Machej, T., Socha, R.P., Włodarczyk, W., Gaweł, A., Matusik, J., Bahranowski, K., Wisła-Walsh, E., Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, L., and Serwicka, E.M., 2015, Appl. Catal., B, 174 (175), 293–307.

[11] Huang, W., Chen, J., He, F., Tang, J., Li, D., Zhu, Y., and Zhang, Y., 2015, Appl. Clay Sci., 104, 252–260,

[12] Ahmad, N., Hussain, S.T., Muhammad, B., Ali, N., Abbas, S.M., and Ali, Z., 2013, Prog. Nat. Sci., 23 (4), 374–381.

[13] Zhou, J., Wu, P., Dang, Z., Zhu, N., Li, P., Wu, J., and Wang, X., 2010, Chem. Eng. J., 162 (3), 1035–1044.

[14] Muzakky, Setyadji, M., and Susiantini, E., 2015, J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 7 (4), 552–558.

[15] Xiang, L., 2012, Preparation of Layered Intercalation Compounds Via One-Pot In Situ Synthesis, Thesis, Texas State University-San Marcos.

[16] Olszewska, D., 2011, Appl. Clay Sci., 53 (2), 353–358.

[17] Mnasri, S., Hamdi, N., Frini-Srasra, N., and Srasra, E., 2014, Arabian J. Chem., 1 (2), 23–25.

[18] Duan, X., Lu, J., and Evans, D.G., 2011, “Assembly chemistry of anion-intercalated layered materials”, in Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry, Elsevier B.V., 375-404

[19] Sun, X., Neuperger, E., and Dey, S.K., 2015, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 459, 264–272.

[20] Cecilia, J.A., García-Sancho, C., and Franco, F., 2013, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 176, 95–102.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 647 | views : 964

Copyright (c) 2016 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.