Effect of Phyllosilicates As Toxin Binder On Productivity, Intestinal Morphology, and Liver Toxicity in Broiler Fed Afb1 Contaminated Feed


Gardika Windar Prahara(1), Adhe Humaera(2), Lies Mira Yusiati(3), Chusnul Hanim(4), Asih Kurniawati(5), Ika Sumantri(6), Ali Agus(7), Erika Kusumawardani(8), Muhsin Al Anas(9*)

(1) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281
(2) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281
(3) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281
(4) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281
(5) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281
(6) Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru 70714
(7) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281
(8) PT. Clariant Indonesia, Tangerang 15138
(9) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author


Aflatoxin B1 is a toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus which reduces the development and function of organs in broilers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding binder toxin from different bentonite to feed contaminated with AFB1 on productivity, intestinal morphology, and liver toxicity in broilers. A total of 60-day old chick male broilers were placed in 12 pens. Each treatment consisted of three replicates, each replicate containing five broilers. Treatment in the study consisted of P0 (control, basal diet, without the addition of AFB1), P1 (P0 + 100 µg/kg AFB1 + 4 g/kg calcium bentonite Type A), P2 (P0 + 100 µg/kg AFB1 + 4 g/kg calcium bentonite Type B), and P3 (P0 + 100 µg/kg AFB1 + 4 g/kg calcium bentonite Type B + kerolite + saponite). Treatment diets were given to broilers from day 22 to 35 (finisher phase). The results showed that the toxin binder on AFB1 contaminated feed had no effect on feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion (p>0.05). Addition of toxin binder on AFB1 contaminated feed increased the relative weight of the duodenum (p=0.024), although P3 was not significantly different. Treatments had no effect on villus length, crypt depth, and ratio of villus length to crypt depth (p>0.05), but decreased villus width (p=0.013). The addition of toxin binder tended to decrease the villus area (p=0.055). SGOT and SGPT did not show differences between treatments. AFB1 contamination with the addition of toxin binder showed signs of toxicity on liver histopathological observations. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the addition of binder toxin in feed contaminated with AFB1 can reduce the negative effect on the development of intestinal villus and chemical effect to the liver. Toxin binder Type B has the best efficacy for reduce the negative effect


Aflatoxin; feed; toxin binder; productivity; broiler

Full Text:



Ahlberg, S., Randolph, D., Okoth, S., Lindahl, J., 2019. Aflatoxin binders in foods for human consumption-can this be promoted safely and ethically? Toxins (Basel). 11.

Akbar, S., Akhtar, M.S., Khan, A., Jilani, G., Ahmad, T., 2022. Efficacy of clay minerals for controlling Aflatoxin B1 toxicity in commercial broilers. Pakistan J. Agric. Sci. 59, 231–239.

Alharthi, A.S., Al Sulaiman, A.R., Aljumaah, R.S., Alabdullatif, A.A., Ferronato, G., Alqhtani, A.H., Al-Garadi, M.A., Al-sornokh, H., Abudabos, A.M., 2022. The efficacy of bentonite and zeolite in reducing Aflatoxin B1 toxicity on production performance and intestinal and hepatic health of broiler chickens. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 21, 1181–1189.

Amiridumari, H., Sarir, H., Afzali, N., Fanimakki, O., 2013. Effects of milk thistle seed against Aflatoxin B1 in broiler model. J. Res. Med. Sci. 18, 786–790.

Anas, M. A., L.M. Yusiati, C.T. Noviandi, dan A. Agus. 2020. Aflatoxin Research Development Study In Indonesia And Decreasing Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity On Broilers. Dissertation Livestock Research for Rural Development. 32(4).

Ashry, A., Taha, N.M., Lebda, M.A., Abdo, W., El-Diasty, E.M., Fadl, S.E., Morsi Elkamshishi, M., 2022. Ameliorative effect of nanocurcumin and Saccharomyces cell wall alone and in combination against aflatoxicosis in broilers. BMC Vet. Res. 18, 1–18.

Attia, K., Asser, M., Tawfeek, F., Basuney, H., 2019. Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine and Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin B1 Intoxication in Broiler Chickens. Alexandria J. Vet. Sci. 61, 18.

Diaz, G.J., Calabrese, E., Blain, R., 2008. Aflatoxicosis in chickens (Gallus gallus): An example of hormesis? Poult. Sci. 87, 727–732.

Diaz, G.J., Murcia, H.W., 2019. An unusually high production of hepatic Aflatoxin B1-dihydrodiol, the possible explanation for the high susceptibility of ducks to Aflatoxin B1. Sci. Rep. 9, 18–21.

Dogi, C., Cristofolini, A., González Pereyra, M.L., García, G., Fochesato, A., Merkis, C., Dalcero, A.M., Cavaglieri, L.R., 2017. Aflatoxins and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Yeast modulates the intestinal effect of aflatoxins, while Aflatoxin B1 influences yeast ultrastructure. World Mycotoxin J. 10, 171–181.

Domingues, Jéssica M.; Schreiner Spiassi, Bárbara; Sanches, Adrien W.D.; Belote, Bruna L.; Santin, Elizabeth; Wagner, R. 2021. The use of histological parameters to assess intestinal and liver health on broilers challenged isolatedly and simultaneously with cyclopiazonic acid and Aflatoxin B1. 29:67–76.

Farooqui, M.Y., Khalique, A., Rashid, M.A., Mehmood, S., Malik, M.I., 2019. Aluminosilicates and yeast-based mycotoxin binders: Their ameliorated effects on growth, immunity and serum chemistry in broilers fed aflatoxin and ochratoxin. South African J. Anim. Sci. 49, 619–627.

Fouad, A.M., Ruan, D., El Senousey, H.A.K., Chen, W., Jiang, S., Zheng, C., 2019. Harmful effects and control strategies of Aflatoxin B1 produced by Aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus strains on poultry: Review. Toxins (Basel). 11, 1–21.

Fowler, J., W. Li, and C. Bailey. 2015. Effects of a kalsium bentonite clay in diets containing aflatoxin when measuring liver residues of Aflatoxin B1 in starter broiler chicks. Toxins (Basel). 7:3455–3464.

Galarza-Seeber, R., Latorre, J.D., Bielke, L.R., Kuttappan, V.A., Wolfenden, A.D., Hernandez-Velasco, X., Merino-Guzman, R., Vicente, J.L., Donoghue, A., Cross, D., Hargis, B.M., Tellez, G., 2016. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens. Front. Vet. Sci. 3, 1–8.

Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A., 1976. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. Lohn Wiley and Sons, Los Banos.

Grenier, B., Applegate, T.J., 2013. Modulation of intestinal functions following mycotoxin ingestion: Meta-analysis of published experiments in animals. Toxins (Basel). 5, 396–430.

Hamid, A.S., Tesfamariam, S.G., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Z.G., 2013. Aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries: Geographical distribution, mechanism of action and prevention (Review). Oncol. Lett. 5, 1087–1092.

Hojati, M., Norouzian, M.A., Alamouti, A.A., Afzalzadeh, A., 2021. In vitro evaluation of binding capacity of different binders to adsorb aflatoxin. Vet. Res. Forum 12, 211–215.

Holanda, D.M., Kim, S.W., 2022. Impacts of weaning weights and mycotoxin challenges on jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota, intestinal and systemic health, and growth performance of nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 13, 1–18.

Hua, Z., Liu, R., Chen, Y., Liu, G., Li, C., Song, Y., Cao, Z., Li, Wen, Li, Weifeng, Lu, C., Liu, Y., 2021. Contamination of Aflatoxins Induces Severe Hepatotoxicity Through Multiple Mechanisms. Front. Pharmacol. 11, 1–14.

Indresh, H.C., Devegowda, G., Ruban, S.W., Shivakumar, M.C., 2013. Effects of high grade bentonite on performance, organ weights and serum biochemistry during aflatoxicosis in broilers. Vet. World 6, 313–317.

Kövesi, B., Cserháti, M., Erdélyi, M., Zándoki, E., Mézes, M., Balogh, K., 2020. Lack of dose- And time-dependent effects of Aflatoxin B1 on gene expression and enzymes associated with lipid peroxidation and the glutathione redox system in chicken. Toxins (Basel). 12, 1–11.

Kraieski, A.L., Hayashi, R.M., Sanches, A., Almeida, G.C., Santin, E., 2017. Effect of aflatoxin experimental ingestion and Eimeira vaccine challenges on intestinal histopathology and immune cellular dynamic of broilers: Applying an Intestinal Health Index. Poult. Sci. 96, 1078–1087.

Liu, W.C., Yang, Y.Y., Pushparaj, K., Balasubramanian, B., 2022. Evaluation of Hepatic Detoxification Effects of Enteromorpha prolifera Polysaccharides against Aflatoxin B1 in Broiler Chickens. Antioxidants 11, 1–13.

Lozano, M.C., Diaz, G.J., 2006. Microsomal and cytosolic biotransformation of Aflatoxin B1 in four poultry species. Br. Poult. Sci. 47, 734–741.

Magnoli, A.P., Monge, M.P., Miazzo, R.D., Cavaglieri, L.R., Magnoli, C.E., Merkis, C.I., Cristofolini, A.L., Dalcero, A.M., Chiacchiera, S.M., 2011. Effect of low levels of Aflatoxin B1 on performance, biochemical parameters, and Aflatoxin B1 in broiler liver tissues in the presence of monensin and sodium bentonite. Poult. Sci. 90, 48–58.

Mahato, D.K., Lee, K.E., Kamle, M., Devi, S., Dewangan, K.N., Kumar, P., Kang, S.G., 2019. Aflatoxins in Food and Feed: An Overview on Prevalence, Detection and Control Strategies. Front. Microbiol. 10, 1–10.

Manafi, Milad & Umakantha, B & Mohmand, Noor Ali & Swamy, H. 2012. Study of the Combination Effects of Aflatoxin and T-2 Toxin on Performance Parameters and Internal Organs of Commercial Broilers. 393-396.

Marchese, S., Polo, A., Ariano, A., Velotto, S., Costantini, S., Severino, L., 2018. Aflatoxin B1 and M1: Biological properties and their involvement in cancer development. Toxins (Basel). 10, 1–19.

McClure, R., Smith, C, Dixon, J.B. 2014. Bentonite properties, formation, and distribution as adsorbents of aflatoxin in grain—The Texas case study. In Aflatoxin Control: Safeguarding Animal Feed with Calcium Smectite. American Society of Agronomy and

Mohaghegh, A., Chamani, M., Shivazad, M., Sadeghi, A.A., Afzali, N., 2017. Effect of esterified glucomannan on broilers exposed to natural mycotoxin-contaminated diets. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 45, 285–291.

Monson, M.S., Coulombe, R.A., Reed, K.M., 2015. Aflatoxicosis: Lessons from Toxicity and Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in Poultry. Agric. 5, 742–777.

Murcia, H.W., Díaz, G.J., Cepeda, S.M., 2011. Enzymatic activity in turkey, duck, quail and chicken liver microsomes against four human cytochrome P450 prototype substrates and Aflatoxin B1. J. Xenobiotics 1, 4.

Nazarizadeh, H., Pourreza, J., 2019. Evaluation of three mycotoxin binders to prevent the adverse effects of aflatoxin B 1 in growing broilers. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 47, 135–139.

Nuryono, A. Agus, S. Wedhastri, Y. M. S. Meryudhani, D. Pranowo. Yunianto, dan E. Razzazi-Fazel. 2012. Adsorbtion of Aflatoxin B1 in corm on natural zeolite and bentonite. Indo J Cham. 12(3): 279-285.

Oguz, H., Bahcivan, E., Erdogan, T., Yalcin, N.F., Ozdas, A., Isık, M.K., Altunbas, O., 2022. In vitro mycotoxin binding capacities of clays, glucomannan and their combinations. Toxicon 214, 93–103.

Pappas, A.C., Tsiplakou, E., Tsitsigiannis, D.I., Georgiadou, M., Iliadi, M.K., Sotirakoglou, K., Zervas, G., 2016. The role of bentonite binders in single or concomitant mycotoxin contamination of chicken diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 57, 551–558.

Rashidi, N., A. Khatibjoo, K. Taherpour, M. Akbari-Gharaei, and H. Shirzadi. 2020. Effects of licorice extract, probiotic, toxin binder and poultry litter biochar on performance, immune function, blood indices and liver histopathology of broilers exposed to aflatoxin-B1. Poult. Sci. 99:5896–5906.

Rawal, S., Coulombe, R.A., 2011. Metabolism of Aflatoxin B1 in Turkey liver microsomes: The relative roles of cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 254, 349–354.

Rejeb, R., S. D. Baere, M. Devreese, R. Ducatelle, S. Croubels, M. H. Ayed, A. Ghorbal dan . G. Antonissen. 2020. Calcination improves the in vivo efficacy of a montmorillonite clay to bind Aflatoxin G1 in broiler chickens: a toxicokinetic approach. Toxins. 12(660):1-15

Riahi, I., Ramos, A.J., Raj, J., Jakovčević, Z., Farkaš, H., Vasiljević, M., Pérez-Vendrell, A.M., 2021. Effect of a mycotoxin binder (MMDA) on the growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of broilers fed ochratoxin a and T-2 mycotoxin contaminated diets. Animals 11.

Rotimi, O. A., S. O. Rotimi, J. M. Goodrich, I. B. Adelani, E. Agbonihale, and G. Talabi. 2019. Time-course effects of acute aflatoksin B1 exposure on hepatic mitochondrial lipids and oxidative stress in rats. Front. Pharmacol. 10:1–10.

Saminathan, M., Selamat, J., Pirouz, A.A., Abdullah, N., Zulkifli, I., 2018. Effects of nano-composite adsorbents on the growth performance, serum biochemistry, and organ weights of broilers fed with aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Toxins (Basel). 10, 1–15.

Senanayake, S.S.H.M.M.L., Ranasinghe, J.G.S., Waduge, R., Nizanantha, K., Alexander, P.A.B.D., 2015. Changes in the serum enzyme levels and liver lesions of broiler birds reared under different management conditions. Trop. Agric. Res. 26, 584.

Śliżewska, K., Cukrowska, B., Smulikowska, S., Cielecka-Kuszyk, J., 2019. The Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Performance and the Histopathological Changes in Liver and Kidneys in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets with Aflatoxin B1. Toxins (Basel). 11, 1–15.

Sumantri, I., A. Agus, B. Irawan, H. Habibah, N. Faizah, and K. J. Wulandari. 2017. Aflatoxins contamination in feed and products of Alabio duck (Anas platyrinchos Borneo) collected from south kalimantan, Indonesia. Bul. Peternak. 41:163.

Sumantri, I., H. Herliani, M. Yuliani, and Nuryono. 2018. Effects of zeolite in aflatoxin B1 contaminated diet on aflatoxin residues and liver histopathology of laying duck. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 207.

Tarasova, E. Y., L. E. Matrosova, S. A. Tanaseva, N. N. Mishina, R. M. Potekhina, O. K. Ermolaeva, S. Y. Smolentsev, A. M. Tremasova, I. R. Kadikov, V. I. Egorov, R. M. Aslanov, and E. I. Semenov. 2020. Protective effect of adsorbent complex on morphofunctional state of liver during chicken polymycotoxicosis. Syst. Rev. Pharm. 11:264–268.

Valchev, I., Kanakov, D., Hristov, T.S., Lazarov, L., Binev, R., Grozeva, N., Nikolov, Y., 2014. Investigations on the liver function of broiler chickens with experimental aflatoxicosis. Bulg. J. Vet. Med. 17, 302–313.

Wang, F., Zuo, Z., Chen, K., Gao, C., Yang, Z., Zhao, S., Li, J., Song, H., Peng, X., Fang, J., Cui, H., Ouyang, P., Zhou, Y., Shu, G., Jing, B., 2018. Histopathological injuries, ultrastructural changes, and depressed TLR expression in the small intestine of broiler chickens with Aflatoxin B1. Toxins (Basel). 10, 1–16.

Widiyanti, P. M. dan R. Maryam. 2017. Kontaminasi aflatoksin dan fumonisin dalam pakan ayam pedaging. Pages 452-459 in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner. Bogor.

Xie, K., He, X., Hu, G., Zhang, H., Chen, Y., Hou, D.X., Song, Z., 2022. The preventive effect and mechanisms of adsorbent supplementation in low concentration Aflatoxin B1 contaminated diet on subclinical symptom and histological lesions of broilers. Poult. Sci. 101.

Xu, R., Kiarie, E.G., Yiannikouris, A., Sun, L., Karrow, N.A., 2022. Nutritional impact of mycotoxins in food animal production and strategies for mitigation. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 13, 1–19.

Yang, J., Bai, F., Zhang, K., Lv, X., Bai, S., Zhao, L., Peng, X., Ding, X., Li, Y., Zhang, J., 2012. Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with AFB1 and AFB2 on performance and aflatoxin residues in broilers. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 57, 506–515.

Yunus, A.W., Razzazi-Fazeli, E., Bohm, J., 2011. Aflatoxin B1 in affecting broiler’s performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: A review of history and contemporary issues. Toxins (Basel). 3, 566–590.

Zabiulla, I., Malathi, V., Swamy, H.V.L.N., Naik, J., Pineda, L., Han, Y., 2021. The efficacy of a smectite-based mycotoxin binder in reducing Aflatoxin B1 toxicity on performance, health and histopathology of broiler chickens. Toxins (Basel). 13.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21059/buletinpeternak.v47i2.81410

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1148 | views : 685


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Buletin Peternakan (Bulletin of Animal Science) Indexed by:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.