Fermentation Technology using Phanerochaete chrysosporium to Improve the Quality of Nutrition of Pod Coffe as Ruminant Feed


Engkus Ainul Yakin(1*), Ali Mursyid Wahyu Mulyono(2), Ahimsa Kandi Sariri(3)

(1) Departement of Animal Husbandry Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Veteran Bangun Nusantara
(2) Departement of Animal Husbandry Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Veteran Bangun Nusantara
(3) Departement of Animal Husbandry Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Veteran Bangun Nusantara
(*) Corresponding Author


This study was carried out to assess the effect of solid state fermentation by using P. chrysosporium on nutrient composition of pod coffee and to evaluate its potency as ruminant feed in vitro. The in vitro experiment was conducted to determine fermentability of treated pod coffee. Fermented pod coffee by P. chrysosporium 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 % (R0 to R4). Pod coffee were air dried to moisture content of 10%-15% and then fermented with P. chrysosporium. The solid state fermentation trials were carried out on a laboratory scale. The result of this studi were fermentation of pod coffee by P. chrysosporium increased protein from 10.36% to 12.64%, and cellulose from 18.51% to 23.80%, and decreased lignin, from 64.42% to 44.04%, tannin from 1.02% to 0.18%, and caffeine from 1.39% to 0.20%. There were no differences in ruminal pH and N-ammonia production but volatile fatty acid production and dry matter digestibility decreased as the fermented of pod coffee level increased. The ruminal protozoa population in fermented of pod coffee diets was lower than the control diets (P<0.05). Conclusion in this study that fermented of pod coffee with P. chrysosporium can increase protein and cellulose concentration, but decrease lignin, tannin, and caffeine concentration.


Pod coffee, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Nutritive value, Ruminant feed

Full Text:



Akinfemi, A. and O. A. Ogunwale. 2012. Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of rice straw treated with Pleuro tus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Pleurotus tuberregium. Slovak J. Anim. Sci. 45: 14-20.

AOAC. 2005. Official Method of Analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Washington, DC. USA.

Baldrian, P. and J. Gabriel. 2003. Lignocellulose degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus in the presence of cadmium. FEMS Microbiology Letters 222: 235-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(03)00102-2.

Brand, D., A. Pandey, and S. Roussos, and C.R. Soccol. 2000. Biological detoxification of coffee husk by filamentous fungi using a solid state fermentation system. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 27: 127-133.

Cabezas, M. T., A. Flores, and J. I. Egana. 1987. Use of Coffee Pulp in Ruminant Feeding. In: Coffee Pulp: Composition, Technology and Utilization. J. E. Brahan and R. Bressani (eds). Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, Guatemala City.

Chan, G. C. F., W. F. Chan, and D. M. Sze. 2009. The effect of β-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. J. Hemotology Oncology. 2: 1-11.

Chang, S. T. and P. G. Miles. 2004. Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect and Environmental Impact. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Charray, J., J. M. Humbert and J. Levif. 1992. Manual of Sheep Production in the Humid Tropic of Africa. CAB International. Wallingford, UK.

Fan, L. and C. R. Soccol. 2005. Coffee residues. http://www.fun-gifun.org/mushworld/shiitake-mush-room-cultivation/mushroom-growershandbooks2-mushworld-com-chap-ter04-02-p.92.pdf.

Fan, L., A. Pandey, and C. R. Soccol. 2001. Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 44: 205-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132001000200015.

Fan, L., A. T. Soccol, A. Pandey, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, and C. R. Soccol. 2006. Effect of caffeine and tannins on cultivation and fructification of Pleurotus on coffee husks. Brazillian J. Microbiology. 37: 420-424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822006000400003.

Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analysis. Agriculture Handbook No. 379. Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Washington DC. p 20.

Harborne, J. B. 1989. General procedures and measurement of total phenolics. In: Methods in Plant Biochemistry. Volume I. J. B. Harborne (Ed) Plant Phenolics. Academic Press, London.

Herliyana, E. N., D. Nandika, Achmad, L. I. Sudirman, and A. B. Witarto. 2008. Biodegradation of sengon-wood sawdust substrate by Pleurotus group fungi from Bogor. J. Tropical Wood Sci. Tech. 6: 75-84.

Iwalokun, B. A., V. A. Usen, A. A. Otunba, and D. K. Olukoya. 2007. Comparative phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Pleurotus ostreatus. Afri. J. Biotechnol. 6: 1732-1739.

Jafari, M., A. Nikkhah, A. A. Sadeghi, and M. Chamani. 2007. The effect of Pleurotus spp. fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of rice straw. Pakistan J. Biological Sci. 10: 2460-2464.

Lindequist, U., T. H. J. Niedermeyer, and W. D. Julich. 2005. The Pharmacological potential of mushroom. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative 2: 285-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/neh107.

Makkar, H. P. S. 2003. Effect and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to over come detrimental effect of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Rumin. Res. 49: 241-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00142-1.

Martinez, D., L. F. Larrondo, N. Putnam, M. D. S. Gelpke, K. Huang, J. Chapman, K. G. Helfenbein, P. Ramaiya, J. C. Detter, F. Larimer, P. M. Coutinho, B. Henrissat, R. Berka, D. Cullen, and D. Rokhsar. 2004. Genome sequence of the lignocellulose degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain RP78. Nature Biotechnology 22: 700. https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt967.pdf.

Mazzafera, P. 2002. Degradation of caffeine by microorganisms and potential use of decaffeinated coffee husk and pulp in animal feeding. Sci. Agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) 59: 815-821.http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162002000400030.

Morand-fehr, P. 2003. Dieatary Choices of Goats at the Trough. Small Rum. Res. 49: 231-239.

Muryanto, U. Nuschati, D. Pramono, and T. Prasetyo. 2009. The potency of coffee husk waste as poultry feed. http://peternakan.litbang.deptan.go.id/publikasi/lokakarya/lkugs06 21.pdf.

Ogimoto, K. and S. Imai. 1981. Atlas of Rumen Microbiology. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo.

Orozco, A. L., M. I. Perez, O. Guevara, J. Rodriguez., M. Hernandez, and Gonzales-Vila. 2008. Biotechnology enhancement of coffee pulp residues by solid state fermentation with streptomyces. Py-Gel MS analysis. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 81: 247-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2007.12.002.

Patel, Y., R. Naraian, and V. K. Singh. 2012. Medicinal properties of Pleurotus species (oyster mushroom): A Review. World J. Fungal Plant Biology 3: 01-12.

Patil, S. P., S. A. Ahmed, S. M. Telang, and M. M. V. Baig. 2010. The nutritional value of Pleurotus ostreatus Kumm cultivated on different lignocellulosic agro-wastes. Innovative Romanian Food Biotechnology. 7: 66-76.

Penaloza, W., M. R. Molina, R. G. Brenes, and R. Bressani. 1985. Solid state Fermentation: An alternative to improve the nutririve value of coffee pulp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 388-393.

Perez, J., J. Munoz-Dorado. T. De la Rubia, and J. Martinez. 2002. Biodegradation and biological treatments of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin:an overview. Int. Microbiol. 5: 53-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10123-002-0062-3.

Preston, T. R. and R. A. Leng. 1987. Matching Ruminant Production System with Available Resources in The Tropics and Sub Tropics. Penambul Books, Armidale.

Rojas, U. J. B., J. A. J. Verreth, J. H. Van Weerd, and E. A. Huisman. 2002. Effect of different chemical treatments on nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of coffee pulp. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 99: 195-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377- 8401(02)00050-0.

Russel, J. B., R. E. Muck, and P. L. Weimer. 2009. Quantitative analysis of cellulose degradation and growth of cellulolytic bacteria in rumen. Minireview. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 67: 183-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00633.x.

Sanchez, C. 2009. Lignocellulosic residues. Biodegradation and bioconversion by fungi. Biotechnol. Adv. 27: 185-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.11.001.

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 2003. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2th edn. Mc. Graw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York.

Sung, H. G., Y. Kobayashi, J. Chang, A. Ha, I. H. Wang, and J. K. Ha. 2007. Low ruminal pH reduces dietary fiber digestion via reduced microbial attachment. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20: 200-207.

Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two stage technique for the in vivo digestion of forage crops. J. Brit. Grassland Soc. 18: 104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1963.tb00335.

Xu, C. C., Y. Cai, J. G. Zhang, and M. Ogawa. 2007. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration silage containing coffee ground at ten or twenty percent of dry matter. J. Anim. Sci. 85: 1024-1029. http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-628.

Yakin, E. A., Z. Bachruddin, R. Utomo, and R. Millati. 2017. Effect of Lignocellulolytic Fungus to Enzimatic Activity, Fiber Fractionand Digestibility on Fermentation Process of Cocoa Pod. Buletin Peternakan 41: 250-256.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21059/buletinpeternak.v45i4.69668

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2009 | views : 880


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Buletin Peternakan (Bulletin of Animal Science) Indexed by:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.