Low Irradiation Dose for Sorghum Seed Sterilization: Hydroponic Fodder System and In Vitro Study


Teguh Wahyono(1*), Shintia Nugrahini Wahyu Hardani(2), Irawans Sugoro(3)

(1) Agricultural Division, Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation, Indonesia National Nuclear Energy Agency, South Jakarta, 12040, Indonesia
(2) Agricultural Division, Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation, Indonesia National Nuclear Energy Agency, South Jakarta, 12040, Indonesia
(3) Agricultural Division, Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation, Indonesia National Nuclear Energy Agency, South Jakarta, 12040, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The purpose of this study was to to evaluate the influence of low gamma irradiation dose on growth performance, in vitro gas production and rumen fermentation product of sorghum hydroponic fodder (SHF) to utilize them in ruminant diets. Three polyethylene packages of Samurai 2 sorghum seeds were exposed at 25oC gamma irradiation in gamma cell (Co-60) at doses of 100, 200 and 300 Gy in the presence of air. Samples were then referigated (< 5oC) before planting. All seeds were planted in nutrient film technique hydroponic system. This study used Completely Randomized Design with four replications The observed parameters were total fresh yield, plant height and coversion ratio from seeds to SHF. In vitro gas test evaluation was done to compare all treatments with sorghum straw. The observed parameters were total gas production, kinetics gas, CH4 concentration, CO2 concentration and rumen fermentation products. Results showed that lower irradiation dose for seeds sterilization decreased plant height and total fresh yield on SHF production. In vitro total gas production of all SHF treatment was higher (p<0.05) than sorghum straw (control) at 2-48 h time of incubation. Gamma irradiation dose of 200 and 300 Gy on SHF seeds sterilization decreased (p<0.05) in vitro CH4 concentration for 19.51 and 15.43% respectively compared to SHF control (hypochlorite sterilization). In the same dose, seeds sterilization with gamma irradiation increased (p<0.05) CO2:CH4 ratio by 23.46 and 20.73% respectively compared to SHF control. The treatment of 100 Gy gamma irradiation for seed sterilization also increased (p<0.05) TVFA by 30.63% compared to sorghum straw. It was concluded that lower irradiation dose for seeds sterilization decreased growth performance of SHF. However, 100 Gy gamma irradiation increased in vitro total gas production.


In vitro; Low irradiation dose; Sorghum hydroponic fodder; Total gas production

Full Text:



Al-Karaki, G. N. and M. Al-Hashimi. 2012. Green fodder production and water use efficiency of some forage crops under hydroponic conditions. ISRN Agronomy 2012: 1-5.

AOAC. 2010. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 18th edn. Revision 3. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington DC.

Aparna, M. A. Chaturvedi, M. Sreedhar, D. Pavan Kumar, P. Venu-Babu and R. K. Singhal. 2013. Impact of gamma rays on the seed germination and seedling parameters of groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.). Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci. 4: 61-68.

Aynehband, A. and K. Afsharinafar. 2012. Effect of gamma irradiation on germination characters of amaranth seeds. Euro. J. Exp. Bio. 2: 995-999.

Bhatta, R., M. M. Saravanan, L. Baruah and C. S. Prasad. 2015. Effect of graded level of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production. J. Appl. Microbiol. 118: 557-564.

Blümmel, M., H. Steingass and B. Becker. 1997. The relationship between in vitro gas production, in vitro microbial biomass yield and 15N incorporated and its implication for the prediction of voluntary feed intake of roughages. Br. J. Nutr. 77: 911-921.

Bodas, R., N. Prieto, R. García-González, S. Andrés, F. J. Giráldez and S. López. 2012. Manipulation of rumen fermentation and methane production with plant secondary metabolites. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 176: 78-93.

Cardozo, P.W., S. Calsamiglia and A. Ferret. 2000. Effects of pH and pH fluctuations on microbial fermentation and nutrient flow in a dual flow continuous culture system. J. Dairy Sci. 83 (Suppl. 1): 265.

Conway, E. J. 1950. Micro-diffusion Analysis and Volumetric Error. Lockwood, London (GBR).

El-Morsy, A. T., M. Abul-Soud and M. S. A. Emam. 2013. Localized hydroponic green forage technology as a climate change adaptation under Egyptian conditions. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 9 341-350.

Emrani, A., A. Razavi, and M. F. Rahimi. 2013. Assessment of gamma ray irradiation effects on germination and some morphological characters in tow corn cultivars. Intl. J. Agri. Crop Sci. 5: 1235-1244.

Fazaeli, H. H. A. Golmohammadi, S. N. Tabatabayee and M. Asghari-Tabrizi. 2012. Productivity and nutritive value of barley green fodder yield in hydroponic system. World Appl. Sci. J. 16: 531-539.

Franco, C. H., V. H. M. dos Santos, L. P. Silva, V. Arthur and R. M. G. Silva. 2015. Mutagenic potential of lettuce grown from irradiated seeds Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 182: 27-30.

Gebremedhin, W. K. 2015. Nutritional benefit and economic value of feeding hydroponically grown maize and barley fodder for Konkan Kanyal goats. IOSR-JAVS 8: 24-30.

Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fibre Analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some application). Agric. handbook 379, ARS., USDA., Washington, DC. USA.

Harding, S. S., S. D. Johnson, D. R. Taylor, C. A. Dixon and M. Y. Turay. 2012. Effect of gamma rays on seed germination, seedling height, survival percentage and tiller production in some rice varieties cultivated in Sierra leone. AJEA 2: 247-255.

Jayanegara, A., S. P. Dewi, N. Laylli, E. B. Laconi, Nahrowi and M. Ridla. 2016. Determination of cell wall protein from selected feedstuffs and its relationship with ruminal protein digestibility in vitro. Media Peternakan 39: 134-140.

Krizsan, S. J., F. Jančík, M. Ramin and P. Huhtanen. 2013. Comparison of some aspects of the in situ and in vitro methods in evaluation of neutral detergent fiber digestion. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 838-847.

Lee, S. and J. Lee. 2015. Beneficial bacteria and fungi in hydroponic systems: Types and characteristics of hydroponic food production methods. Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 195: 206-215.

Maity, S. Chakraborty, S. Kar, S. Panja, J. S. Jean, A. C. Samal, A. Chakraborty, S. C. Santra, and N. Chakraborty. 2009. Effects of gamma irradiation on edible seed protein, amino acids and genomic DNA during sterilization. Food Chem. 114: 1237-1244.

Menke, K. H., L. Raab, A. Salewski, H. Steingass, D.Fritz and W. Schneider. 1979. Theestimation of the digestibility andmetabolizable energy content of ruminantfeeding stuffs from the gas productionwhen they are incubated with rumen liquor.J.Agric. Sci. 93: 217-222.

Ogimoto, K. and S. Imai. 1981. Atlas of Rumen Microbiology. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo.

Ørskov, E. R. and I. Mcdonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to the rate of passage. J.Agric. Sci. Camb. 92: 499-503.

Roza, E. L., M. S. Suardi, E. Nurdin and S. N. Aritonang. 2013. Digestibility test of cassava leaves in feed supplement on buffaloes by in-vitro. Pak. J. Nutr. 12: 505-509.

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principlesand Procedures of Statistics. 2nd edn., McGraw-Hill., New York.

Wahyono, T. 2015. Evaluasi fermentabilitas ransum kerbau yang mengandung sorgum dengan pendekatan In Sacco, In Vitro dan RUSITEC. Tesis. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Wahyono, T., D. A. Astuti, K. G. Wiryawan, dan I. Sugoro. 2014. Pengujian ransum kerbau berbahan baku sorgum sebagai sumber serat secara in vitro dan in sacco. Jurnal Ilmiah Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi 10: 113-126.

Wanapat, M., S. Kang and K. Phesatcha. 2013. Enhancing buffalo production efficiency through rumen manipulation and nutrition. Buffalo Bull. 32: 258-275.

Wang, M., R. Wang, P. H. Janssen, X. M. Zhang, X.Z. Sun, D. Pacheco and Z. L. Tan. 2016.Sampling procedure for the measurementof dissolved hydrogen and volatile fattyacids in the rumen of dairy cows. J. Anim.Sci. 94: 1159-1169.

Younesikelaki, F. S., M. H. Ebrahimzadeh, M. K. Desfardi, M. Banala, R. Marka and R. S. Nanna. 2016. Optimization of seed surface sterilization method and in vitro seed germination in Althaea officinalis (L.) - an important medicinal herb. Indian J. Sci. Technol. 9: 1-6.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21059/buletinpeternak.v42i3.30888

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 551 | views : 294


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Buletin Peternakan (Bulletin of Animal Science) Indexed by:

 Harvard Library
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.