In Vitro ACE Inhibitory Activity and Bioactive Compounds of Aqueous Extract of Citrus amblycarpa

I Gusti Ayu Wita Kusumawati(1*), I Made Wisnu Adhi Putra(2), Ida Bagus Agung Yogeswara(3)

(1) Ilmu Gizi, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Universitas Dhyana Pura, Kuta Utara, Bali
(2) Biology, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Universitas Dhyana Pura, Kuta Utara, Bali
(3) Ilmu Gizi, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Universitas Dhyana Pura, Kuta Utara, Bali
(*) Corresponding Author


Citrus amblycarpa contain flavonoid-rich compounds and play important role in suppressing the conversion of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE 1) to angiotensin-enzyme 2 (ACE 2). This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds in the lime peel extract and their ability as in vitro ACE inhibitor activity. The lime peel extract was obtained by boiling the dried peel and dried leaves for 7 min at 70oC. The bioactive compound of the peel and the leaves were compared. The total phenolic, quercetin, rutin, and GABA were further quantified using spectrophotometer UV vis. The aqueous extract of C. ambylcarpa peel showed a high concentration of phenolic, quercetin, rutin, and GABA than that of the leaves extract. Furthermore, the peel extract at low concentration (0.0001 g/mL) has high efficiency in inhibiting ACE activity up to 133%. It can be concluded that the peel of C. amblycarpa is a good candidate for the management of hypertension.


Citrus amblycarpa; ACE inhibitory; Flavonoid; ɣ-aminobutyric acid

Full Text:



Ammar, A.-F., Siddeeg, A. & Zhang, H. 2014. ‘In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) Seeds’, Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2(5), pp. 215–220. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-5-2.

Bakhouche, I., Toufik A., Tahar B., Lynda G., Aysen S. & Yuva B. 2021. ‘Phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-inflammatory effects of leaves and roots extracts of the halophyte Limonium delicatulum’, South African Journal of Botany, pp. 42–49. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2021.01.030.

Balasuriya, B. & Rupasinghe, H. 2011. ‘Plant flavonoids as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in regulation of hypertension’, Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 1(5), pp. 172–188.

Budiarto, R. Poerwanto, R., Santosa, E. & Efendi, D. 2017. ‘The Potentials of Limau (Citrus amblycarpa Hassk. Ochse) as A Functional Food and Ornamental Mini Tree Based on Metabolomic and Morphological Approaches’, Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 4(2), pp. 49–57. doi: 10.29244/jtcs.4.2.49-57.

Cangiano, E., Marchesini, J., Campo, G., Francolini, G., Fortini, C., Carra, G., Miccoli, M., Ceconi, C., Tavazzi, L. & Ferrari, R. 2012. ‘ACE inhibition modulates endothelial apoptosis and renewal via endothelial progenitor cells in patients with acute coronary syndromes (Am Journal of Cardiovasc Drugs (2011) 11:3 (189-98))’, American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, 12(2), p. 126. doi: 10.2165/11598750-000000000-00000.

Chang, C. C., Ming, H., Hwei, MW. & Jiing, CC. 2002. ‘Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colometric methods’, Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 10(3), pp. 178–182. doi: 10.38212/2224-6614.2748.

Daskaya-Dikmen, C., Yucetepe, A., Karbancioglu-Guler, F., Daskaya, H. & Ozcelik, Beraat. 2017. ‘Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides from plants’, Nutrients, 9(4), pp. 1–19. doi: 10.3390/nu9040316.

Diana, M., Quílez, J. & Rafecas, M. 2014. ‘Gamma-aminobutyric acid as a bioactive compound in foods: A review’, Journal of Functional Foods. Elsevier Ltd, 10, pp. 407–420. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2014.07.004.

Ferrarlo, C. M. 2011. ‘ACE2: More of Ang-(1-7) or less Ang II?’, Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 20(1), pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0b013e3283406f57.

Gu, Y. & Wu, J. 2013. ‘LC-MS/MS coupled with QSAR modeling in characterising of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from soybean proteins’, Food Chemistry. Elsevier Ltd, 141(3), pp. 2682–2690. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.04.064.

Hazrati, S. Saeid, MTE., Saeed, M. & Sara, K. 2019. ‘Evaluation of volatile and phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of different parts of Ferulago angulata (schlecht.) Boiss’, Industrial Crops and Products. Elsevier, 140(January), p. 111589. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.111589.

Mahmoud, A. M., Hernández, R. J. B., Sandhu, M. A. & Hussein, O. E. 2019. ‘Beneficial effects of citrus flavonoids on cardiovascular and metabolic health’, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2019. doi: 10.1155/2019/5484138.

Men, R., Li, N., Xing, Y., Tang, Y., Tan, C., Meng, F., Zhang, J., Ni, H. & Jia, X. 2013. ‘Chemical constituents and ACE inhibitory activity of desert plant Suaeda physophora Pall.’, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. Elsevier, 3(5), pp. 328–332. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2013.07.003.

Pandey, J., Tonking, B., Julu, T., Milu, T., Rabindra, K.R., Bhawana, D., Rabin, DC., Ravin B. & Amrit, P. 2020. ‘Estimation of Total Quercetin and Rutin Content in Malus domestica of Nepalese Origin by HPLC Method and Determination of Their Antioxidative Activity’, Journal of Food Quality, 2020. doi: 10.1155/2020/8853426.

Pu, Y. Andwe, J.S., Jianjun, Z., Donghong, L. & Lijun, S. 2019. ‘Determination of ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)’, CYTA - Journal of Food. Taylor & Francis, 17(1), pp. 158–162. doi: 10.1080/19476337.2019.1566277.

Ruviaro, A. R., Barbosa, P. de P. M., Martins, I. M., de Ávila, A. R. A., Nakajima, V. M., Dos Prazeres, A. R., Macedo, J. A. & Macedo, G. A. 2020. ‘Flavanones biotransformation of citrus by-products improves antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities in vitro’. Food Bioscience, 38, 100787.

Saputri, F. C., Mun'im, D., Lukmanto, S. N., Aisyah, & Rinandy, J. S. (2015) ‘Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Ace) Activity By Some Indonesia Edible Plants’, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 6(3), pp. 1054–1059. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(3).1054-59.

Sathishkumar, T. Ramakrishnan, B., Mohan, A., Suryanarayana, T., Sri, D. & Vellalore, M. B. 2013. ‘ Simultaneous Extraction Optimization and Analysis of Flavonoids from the Flowers of Tabernaemontana heyneana by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Diode Array Detector and Electron Spray Ionization/Mass Spectrometry ’, ISRN Biotechnology, 2013, pp. 1–10. doi: 10.5402/2013/450948.

See, G. L. Lo, Arce, F. V. & Deliman, Y. C. 2016. ‘ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) inhibition activity of oven – Dried and air – Dried sambong Blumea balsamifera L.(dc.) tea’, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 8(7), pp. 1132–1136.

Siti, H. N., Kamisah, Y., Nur Iliyani, M. I., Mohamed, S. & Jaarin, K. 2017. ‘Citrus leaf extract reduces blood pressure and vascular damage in repeatedly heated palm oil diet-Induced hypertensive rats’. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 87, 451–460.

Stevenie, S., Ermi, G., Alin, N. N. & Lister, I.N. E. 2019. ‘Comparison activities of peel and extract of lime (Citrus amblycarpa) as antioxidant and antielastase’, American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS), 57(1), pp. 77–84.

Yang, N. C., Jhou, K. Y. & Tseng, C. Y. 2012. ‘Antihypertensive effect of mulberry leaf aqueous extract containing γ-aminobutyric acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats’, Food Chemistry. Elsevier Ltd, 132(4), pp. 1796–1801. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.11.143.

Yogeswara, I. B.A., Kusumawati, I. G. A. W., Sumadewi, N. L. U., Rahayu, E. S. & Indrati, R. 2018. ‘Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from Indonesian fermented foods as γ-aminobutyric acid-producing bacteria’, International Food Research Journal, 25(4), pp. 1753–1757.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2157 | views : 2656


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)
 ISSN 2406-9086
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada