Post-harvest Quality Evolution of Jonagored Apples (Mallus domestica cv. Borkh) during Shelf life Storage

Fahrizal Yusuf Affandi(1*), Bert Verlinden(2)

(1) Department of Agroindustry, Vocational College, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
(2) Flanders Centre for Postharvest Technology/ Laboratory of Postharvest Technology, Katholieke, Universiteit Lueven, Belgium
(*) Corresponding Author


The experiment was carried out to study the quality evolution of Jonagored apples (Mallus domestica cv. Borkh) during 14 days of shelf life prior to controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. The apple were harvested from the “Fruitteelt centrum” (Velm, Belgium) in 24 September 2010 (optimal picking) and 8 October 2010 (late picking) and were stored at 18°C and 65% RH to mimic the shelf life condition. The apple then were measured for colour, firmness, soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity, ethylene production rate, O 2 consumption rate, CO 2 production rate and respiratory quotient (RQ) at 0, 7 and 14 days after harvest. There was a significant effect of shelf life duration in colour of the apple. The apple turn its colour from green to yellowish green at the end of shelf life. The optimal-harvested apple had a greener colour than the late-harvested apple at 0 and 7 days of shelf life except at 14 days where the older apple had a greener colour. Although the effect was not consistent, firmness of apple was affected by shelf life and picking time as well. Firmness decreased along shelf life and the optimal-harvested apples were firmer than the late-harvested apple. Apple’s acidity decreased during shelf life from 8,43 mL NaOH (optimal-harvested apple) and 8.85 mL NaOH (late- harvested apple) to 7.58 mL NaOH (optimal-harvested apple) and 7.03 mL NaOH (late- harvested apple) at the end of shelf life. Yet, acidity was not affected by picking time. Ethylene was considerably increased throughout shelf life and the late-harvested apple had a higher ethylene production level than the optimal-harvested apple. Optimal-harvested apple had a lower respiration rate than the late picked apple. Older apple consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide at a higher rate than the younger apple. Moreover, respiration rates as represented by O 2 consumption rate, CO 2 production rate and respiratory quotient (RQ) tended to increase along shelf life.


Apple quality; Storage; Respiration

Full Text:



Abbott, J. A., 1999. Quality measurement of fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 15(3), p. 207–225.

Almela L, Fernández-López JA, Candela ME, Egea C & Alcázar MD. 1996. Changes in Pigments, Chlorophyllase Activity, and Chloroplast Ultrastructure in Ripening Pepper for Paprika. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44, 1704-1711.

Barrett, Beaulie & Shewfelt. 2010. Color, Flavor, Texture, and Nutritional Quality of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Desirable Levels, Instrumental and Sensory Measurement, and the Effects of Processing. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 50, 369-389.

Bower JH, Biasi WV & Mitcham EJ. 2003. Effect of ethylene in the storage environment on quality of [`]Bartlett pears'. Postharvest Biology and Technology 28, 371-379.

Bullens, I. et al. 2010. Modeling of Ethylene Biosynthesis during Ripening and CA Storage of ‘Jonagold’ Apples. Acta Hort: X International Controlled and Modified Atmosphere Research Conference, Volume 876, pp. 85-90

Gasser F, Eppler T, Naunheim W, Gabioud S & Bozzi Nising A. 2010. Dynamic CA Storage of Apples: Monitioring of the Critical Oxygen Concentration and Adjustment Of Optimum Conditions During Oxygen Reduction. In Acta Hort, pp. 39 - 46: ISHS.

Kader AA. 1986. Biochemical and physiological basis for effects of controlled and modified atmospheres on fruits and vegetables. Food Technology 40, 99-104.

Kader, A. A., 1987. Respiration and gas exchange in vegetables. In: J. Weichman, ed. Postharvest physiology of vegetables. New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 25 - 44.

Kader AA. 1999. Fruit Maturity, Ripening and Quality Relationships.

Kays SJ & Paull RE. 2004. Postharvest Biology. Athens, Georgia: Exon Press.

Knee M & Hatfield S. 1981. Benefits of Ethylene Removal during Apple Storage. Annals of Applied Biology 98, 157-165.

Konopacka D & Plocharski WJ. 2004. Effect of storage conditions on the relationship between apple firmness and texture acceptability. Postharvest Biology and Technology 32 , 205-211.

Looney NE & Patterson ME. 1967. Chlorophyllase Activity in Apples and Bananas during the Climacteric Phase. Nature 214, 1245 - 1246.

Nicolaï BM, Hertog MLATM, Ho QT, Verlinden BE & Verboven P. 2009. Gas Exchange Modellin. In Modified and Controlled Atmospheres for the Storage, Transportation, and Packaging of Horticultural Commodities pp. 93 - 110 [EM Yahia, editor]. Boca Raton/London/New York: CRC Press.

Nicolaï BM, Lammertyn J, Schotsmans W & Verlinden BE. 2005. Gas Exchange Properties of Fruit and Vegetables. In Engineering Properties of Foods, pp. 645-677 [MA Rao, SSH Rizvi and AK Datta, editors]. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Paull RE. 1999 Effect of temperature and relative humidity on fresh commodity quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology 15, 263-277.

Peck, G. M., Andrews, P. K., Reganold, J. P. & Fellman, J. K.. 2006. Apple Orchard Productivity and Fruit Quality under Organic, Conventional and Integrated Management. Hortscience, 41(1), pp. 99 - 107.

Saltveit AAKaME. 2003. Respiration and Gas Exchange. In Postharvest Physiology and Pathology of Vegetables , pp. 7-30 [JABaJK Brecht, editor]. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Saltveit ME. 1999. Effect of ethylene on quality of fresh fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Biology and Technology 15,279-292.

Sas P. 1993. Fruit Storage Budapest: Mezo Gazda.

Taiz L & Zeiger E. 2002. Plant Physiology, 3rd Edition ed: Sinauer Associates.

Thammawong M & Arakawa O. 2010. Starch to Sugar Conversion in "Tsugaru" Apples under Ethylene a 2.1 Method and 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatments. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology 12, 617-626.

Volz, R. K., Harker, R. K. & Lang, S., 2003. Firmness Decline in ‘Gala' Apple during Fruit Development. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 128(6), p.797– 802.

Yahia EM. 1991. Production of Some Odor - active Volatiles by `McIntosh' Apples following Low - ethylene Controlled - atmosphere Storage. HortScience 26, 1183-1185.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 932 | views : 707


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Fahrizal Yusuf Affandi, Bert Verlinden

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.