Using Macroscopic, Microscopic, and FTIR Spectroscopy combined with Chemometrics to Authenticate Arabica Coffee from Antbush

David Fernando(1), Djoko Santosa(2), Abdul Rohman(3*)

(1) Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
(2) *) Centre of Excellence, Institute of Halal Industry and Systems, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta *) Department of Biological Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta
(3) *) Centre of Excellence, Institute of Halal Industry and Systems, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta *) Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
(*) Corresponding Author


Limited coffee stocks, high consumption, export demands, and increasing prices may contribute to counterfeiting. In other countries, including India and Africa, coffee forgery using antbush has been extensively established. Due to its abundance in Indonesia, unscrupulous coffee growers allegedly employ antbush (Senna occidentalis) as an adulterant in coffee to increase commercial earnings. This study aims to authenticate coffee from antbush using macroscopic and microscopic differences and FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. The arabica coffee samples from various regions were oven-roasted to a second crack and milled. The materials were then examined under macroscopic, microscopic, and infrared spectroscopic conditions. The obtained responses were used to monitor the qualitative and quantitative information in the targeted samples. Antbush in coffee samples is successfully identified microscopically by remnants of palisade tissue as well as the structural differences of the endosperm. In addition, FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate calibration can accurately estimate the concentration of antbush as adulterants in the target sample. Principle component regression (PCR) provides the best modeling for the relationship between the actual value. FTIR predicted the value of antbush with the lowest RMSEC and RMSEP values of 0.852 and 0.896, respectively, with the coefficient of determination (R2) in calibration and validation models of 0.9996 and 0.9967, respectively. The combination of macroscopic, microscopic, and FTIR spectroscopy offered reliable tools to authenticate arabica coffee from antbush.


antbush; arabica coffee; IR spectroscopy; macroscopy; microscopy

Full Text:



Az, M.A., Nassar, Z.A., Ramadan, H.R.H., Ibrahim, H.M.S. (2013). Anatomical Structures of Vegetative and Reproductive Organs of Senna occidentalis (Caesalpiniaceae). Turk. J. Bot, p. 12.

Coates, J. (2006). Interpretation of Infrared Spectra, ‘A Practical Approach, in Meyers, R.A., 2006, Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry’. UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006, p. a5606. doi: 10.1002/9780470027318.a5606.

Correia, R.M., Tosato, F., Domingos, E., Rodrigues, R.R.T., Aquinio, L.F.M., Filgueiras, P.R., Lacerda Jr, V., Romão, W. (2018). Portable Near Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to Quality Control of Brazilian Coffee. Talanta, 176, 59–68. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2017.08.009.

Fernando, D., Rahmanina, A., Rohman, A., Santosa, D. (2023). Vibrational Spectroscopy in Combination with Chemometrics as an Emerging Technique in the Authentication of Coffee: A Review. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 13(03):012–022.

Hall, R.D., Trevisan, F., de Vos, R.C.H. (2022). Coffee Berry and Green Bean Chemistry – Opportunities for Improving Cup Quality and Crop Circularity. Food. Res. Int, 151, 110825. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110825.

Kumar, D., Buge, P.V., Bhat, Z.A. (2011). Macroscopical and Microscopical Evaluation of Leaves of Clerodendrum inerme Gaertn. Int. J. Biol. Med. Res., p. 6.

Mariod, A.A., Mirghani, M.E.S., Hussein, I., Chapter 4 – Cassia (Senna) occidentalis L. (Coffee Senna). in Mariod, A.A., Mirghani, M.E.S., Hussein, I. (2017). Unconventional Oilseeds and Oil Sources, Eds. Academic Press. pp. 21–25. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809435-8.00004-4.

Pavia, D.L., Lampman, G.M., Kriz, G.S. (2001). Introduction to Spectroscopy. 3rd ed. Saunders College Division.

Pizarro, C., Esteban-Díez, I., González-Sáiz, J.M. (2007). Mixture Resolution According to the Percentage of Robusta Variety in Order to Detect Adulteration in Roasted Coffee by Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Anal. Chim. Acta, 585(2), 266–276. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.12.057.

Shaheen, S., Ramzan, S., Khan, F., Ahmad, M. (2019). 'Adulteration in Herbal Drugs': A Burning Issue. Switzerland: Springer Nature. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-28034-5.

Smits, M., Verhoeckx, K., Knulst, A., Welsing, P., de Jong, A., Houben, G., Le, T.M. (2021). Ranking of 10 Legumes According to the Prevalence of Sensitization as a Parameter to Characterize Allergenic Proteins. Toxicol Rep, 8, 767–773. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.027.

Suhandy, D., Yulia, M., Ogawa, Y., Kondo, N. (2018). The Detection and Quantification of Adulteration in Ground Roasted Asian Palm Civet Coffee Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Tandem with Chemometrics. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth. Environ. Sci. vol. 147. p. 012011. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/147/1/012011.

Ukers, W.H. (2009). 'All About Coffee', [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 25 October 2021).

Vionita, S., Kardhinata, E.H., Damanik, R.I. (2021). Morphology Identification and Description of Coffee Plants (Coffea sp) in Karo District. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth. Environ. Sci, vol. 782, no. 4, p. 042051. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/782/4/042051.

Visciano, P., Schirone, M. (2021). Food frauds: Global Incidents and Misleading Situations. Trends Food Sci. Technol, 114, 424–442. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2021.06.010.

Yusarman. (2016). 'Mengenal Tanaman Kasingsat', [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 25 October 2021).

Zhan, H., Fang, J., Tang, L., Yang, H., Li, H., Wang, Z., Yang, B., Wu, H. (2017). Application of Near-infrared Spectroscopy for the Rapid Quality Assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 183: 75–83.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 732 | views : 517


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)
 ISSN 2406-9086
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada