Study of Impacts of Ganoderma applanatum (Pres.) Pat. Extract on Hepatic and Renal Biochemical Parameters of Rats

Sukumar Dandapat(1*), Manoj Kumar(2), Rakesh Ranjan(3), Manoranjan Prasad Sinaha(4)

(1) Department of Zoology, Ranchi University, Ranchi-834008, Jharkhand
(2) Department of Zoology, St. Xavier’s College, Ranchi-834001, Jharkhand
(3) Department of Zoology, Ranchi University, Ranchi-834008, Jharkhand
(4) Department of Zoology, Ranchi University, Ranchi-834008, Jharkhand
(*) Corresponding Author


Traditionally, Ganoderma applanatum was used as medicinal supplement for treatment of different diseases. In this study, biochemical screening, acute toxicity, and impact of G. applanatum aqueous extract on liver and renal parameters were studied. Qualitative screening of G. applanatum aqueous extract showed presence of various biochemicals such as tannin, phenolics, proteins, flavanoids and other biochemicals. FTIR analysis also showed spectrum transmission peaks for different mycochemicals such as3248. 13cm-1 for phenol O-H stretch, 1597.06cm-1 for primary amine N-H stretch, 783.10cm-1 for aromatic (meta disub benzene) C-H stretch. The extract increased body weight (Initial body weight: 181.74g; final body weight: 185.08g) when compared to control group (Initial body weight: 178.61 g; final body weight: 181.14 g) in acute toxicity test dose (2000mg/kg). Similar insignificant in final body weight of animals of different groups were observed when compared to initial body weight of animals used for the study of live and renal profile. The extract had no significant effect on organ weight. Low dose (200mg kg-1) of extract insignificantly decrease AST (51.71±0.61 mg dL-1), ALT (146.07±0.89 mg dL-1), ALP (174.68±0.65 mg dL-1) and bilirubin (0.61±0.01 mg dL-1) level and significantly elevated serum albumin level (6.63±0.22 g dL-1) compare to control group.  Low dose (200mg kg-1) extract showed similar insignificant decrease in serum urea (61.30±1.05 mg dL-1) and creatinine level (0.90±0.02 mg dL-1) and significantly decreased serum uric acid level (19.52±1.14 mg dL-1) compare to control group of rats. Thus, dose-oriented application of G. applanatum extract can be beneficial for treatment of hepatic and renal diseases.


Fungus; toxicity; renal; hepatic; medicinal

Full Text:



Abdullah, B.A., Sarhat, E.R. & Owain, M.S., 2018, ‘Effect of Ganoderma lucidumsupplement on kidney function markers and histology in albino rats given hydrogen peroxide in drinking water 30 days’, Online J. Veterin. Res. 22(10), 941-951.

Agbaje, E.O., Adeneye, A.A. & Daramola, A.O., 2009, ‘Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and Perry (Myrtaceae) in rodents’, Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 6, 241-254.

Agrawal, S., & Gupta, D., 2013, ‘Assessment of liver damage in male albino rats after repetitive heat stress of moderate level’, National J. Physiol. Pharma. Pharmacol. 3(2), 147 – 152.

Ali, T., Bhalli, J.A., Rana, S.M. & Khan Q.M., 2008, ‘Cytogenetic damage in female Pakistani agricultural workers exposed to pesticides’, Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 49(5), 374–380

Arya, V., Thakur, N., & Kashyap, C.P., 2012, ‘Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts of Psidium leaves’, J. Pharmacog Phytochem. 1(1), 1-6.

Bigoniya, P., Singh, C.S. & Shukla, A., 2009, ‘A Comprehensive review of different liver toxicants used in experimental pharmacology’, Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug. Res. 1(3), 124-135.

Chaudhary, K., Malhotra, K., Sowers, J. & Aroor, A., 2013, ‘Uric acid - key ingredient in the recipe for cardiorenal metabolic syndrome’, Cardiorenal Med. 3, 208–220.

Dandapat, S., Sinha, M.P., Kumar, M., & Jaggi, Y., 2015, ‘Hepatoprotective efficacy of medicinal mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. Environ. Experiment. Biol., 13, 103–108.

Eren, S.H., Demirel, Y., Ugurlu, S., Korkmaz, I., Aktas, C. & Güven, F.M.K., 2010, ‘Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases’, Clinics. 65, 491–496.

Eroglu, H.A. & Beytut, E., 2018, ‘Effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on oxidative damage in liver of STZ-diabetic rats’, Biomed. Res. 29(18), 3436-3443.

Gowda, S., Desai, P.B., Hull, V.V., Math, A.A.K., Vernekar, S.N. & Kulkarni, S.S., 2009, ‘A review on laboratory liver function tests’, Pan Afric. Med. J. 3(17), 01-11.

Ifeanacho, M.O., 2017, ‘Biochemistry of the Kidney in Biochemistry for Medical and Basic Sciences. 2nd edn. Uwakwe, A.A & Agomuo, E.N., (eds)’, pp. 313-315 Supreme Publishers, Owerri.

IMUSG (Instruction Manual User System Guide)., 2002, ‘IRPrestige-21 (P/N 206-72010) Shimadzu Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer. Shimazu Corporation, Analytical & measuring instrument division, Koyoto, Japan’, pp.3, 1-27.

Iseki, K., Oshiro, S., Tozawa, M., Iseki, C., Ikemiya, Y. & Takishita, S., 2001, ‘Significance of hyperuricemia on the early detection of renal failure in a cohort of screened subjects. Hyperten Res. 24(6), 691–697.

Jeong, Y.T., Yang, B.K., Jeong, S.C., Kim, S.M., &Song, C.H., 2008, ‘Ganoderma applanatum: a promising mushroom for antitumor and immunomodulating activity’, Phytotherapy Res. 22(5), 614-619.

Kedderis, G.L., 1996, ‘Biochemical basis of hepatocellular injury. Toxicol. Pathol. 24, 77-83.

Keong, C.Y., Chen, X., Jamal, J.A., Wang, Q., Lan, J., 2012, ‘Preliminary results of determination of chemical changes on Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst. (Higher Basidiomycetes) carried by Shenzhou I spaceship with FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy’, Int. J. Med. Mushrooms. 14(3), 295-305.

Lai, T., Gao, Y. & Zhou, S.F., 2004, ‘Global marketing of medicinal Ling Zhi mushroom Ganodermalucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllo phoromycetideae) products and safety concerns’, Int. J. Med. Mushrooms. 6, 189–194.

Lull, C., Wichers, H.J. & Savelkoul, H.F.J., 2005, ‘Antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties of fungal metabolites’, Mediators Inflamm. 2, 63–80.

Ma, L., Zhang, S., Yuan, Y. & Gao, J., 2014, ‘Hypouricemic actions of exopolysaccharide produced by cordyceps militaris in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. Current Microbiol. 69, 852–857.

Maiuolo, J., Oppedisano, F., Gratteri, S., Muscoli, C. & Mollace, V., 2016, ‘Regulation of uric acid metabolism and excretion. Int. J. Cardiol. 213, 8–14

Mayes, P.A., 1988, ‘Bioenergetics. Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K. & Mayes, P.A. (Eds.), Rodwell VW. In Harper’s Biochemistry, pp. 97-99, Appleton Lange, California.

Mehrdad, M., Messripour, M. & Ghobadipour, M., 2007, ‘The effect of ginger extract on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in mice. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 10(17), 2968-2971.

Mishra, S. & Singh, R.B., 2013, ‘A review on physiological, biochemical and biotechnological applications of mushroom. IOSR J. Pharma. Biol. Sci.8(2), 31-34

Mitch, W.E. & Fouque D., 2012, ‘Dietary approaches to kidney disease’, edited by Brenner, B.M., in Brenner and Rector’s The Kidney, pp. 2170–2204, Philadelphia, Elsevier. United States.

Mukinda, J. & Syce, J.A., 2007,‘Acute and chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents’,J. Ethnopharmacol. 112, 138–144.

Niemela, T., & Miettinen, O., 2008, ‘The identity of Ganoderma applanatum (Basidiomycota)’, Taxon. 57(3), 963-966.

Nwankpa, P., Ekweogu, C.N., Egwurugwu, J.N., Chukwuemeka, O.G., Etteh, C.C., Ugwuezumba, P.C. & Emengagha, F.C., 2018, ‘Assessment of kidney function indices in male albino wistar rats administered ethanol stem extract of Dennettia tripetala (Pepper fruit)’, Biochem. Pharmacol. 7(1), 2-4.

OECD., 2008, ‘Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing chemicals Section-4. Test No. 425’, Acute oral toxicity up and down procedure. pp. 1-27.

Oghenesuvwe, E.E., Nwoke, E.E., & Lotanna, A.D., 2014, ‘Guidelines on dosage calculation and stock solution preparation in experimental animals’ studies’, J. Natural Sci. Res. 4(18), 100-106.

Ogunlana, O.O., Ogunlana, O.E., Adeneye, A.A., Udo-Chijioke, O.A.C., Dare- Olipede, T.I., Olagunju, J.A. & Akindahunsi, A.A., 2013, ‘Evaluation of the toxicological profile of the leaves and young twigs of Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn) roxb.’, Afr. J. Tradit. Complement Altern. Med. 10(6), 504–512.

Rajesh, S.V., Rajkapoor, B., Kumar, R.S. & Raju, K., 2009, ‘Effect of Claus enadentata (Willd.) M. Roem. against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats’, Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 22(1), 90–93.

Salawu, O.A., Chindo, B.A., Tijani, A.Y., Obidike, I., Salawu, T.A. & Akingbasote A.J., 2009, ‘Acute and sub-acute toxicological evaluation of the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga in rats’, Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 3(12), 621–626.

Saleem, U., Amin, S., Ahmad, B., Azeem, H., Anwar, F., & Mary, S., 2017, ‘Acute oral toxicity evaluation of aqueous ethanolic extract of Saccharum munja Roxb. roots in albino mice as per OECD 425 TG’, Toxicol. Reports. 4, 580–585.

Simao, A.N.C., Lozovoy, M.A.B. & Dich, I., 2012, ‘The uric acid metabolism pathway as a therapeutic target in hyperuricemia related to metabolic syndrome, Expert Opin. Therap. Target. 16(12), 1175-1187.

Singh, A., Bhat, T.K. & Sharma, O.P., 2011, ‘Clinical biochemistry of hepatotoxicity’, J. Clinic. Toxicol. S4(1), 1-19.

Singh, R., Singh, A.P., Dhingra, G.S. & Shri R., 2014, ‘Taxonomy, physicochemical evaluation and chemical investigation of Ganoderma applanatum and G. brownie. Int. J. Adv. Res. 2(5), 702-711.

Sireeratawong, S., Lertprasertsuke, N., Srisawat, U., Thuppia, A., Ngamjariyawat, A., Suwanlikhid, N. & Jaijoy, K., 2008, ‘Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of the water extract from Tiliacora trianora (Colebr.) Diels in rats’, Songklankarin J. Sci. Technol. 30, 729–737.

Subramanion, L.J., Zakaria, Z., Chen, Y., Lau, Y.L., Latha, L.Y. & Sasidharan, S., 2011, ‘Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of cassia fistula in mice’, Molecules. 16(6), 5268–5282.

Tam, S.C., Yip, K.P., Fung, K.P. & Chang, S.T., 2002, ‘Hypotensive and renal effects of an extract of the edible mushroom’, Life Sci. 38, 1155–1161.

Thapa, B.R. & Walia, A., 2007, ‘Liver function tests and their interpretation. Ind J. Pediatr. 74, 663-671.

Vanishree, B., Dayanand, C.D. & Sheela, S.R., 2017, ‘Evaluation of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity by flavonoids from Pongamia pinnata Linn. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 10, 360-362.

Wasser, S.P., 2011, ‘Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms’, Applied Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89(5), 1323-1332.

Weiner, D., Mitch, W.E. & Sands, J.M., 2015, ‘Urea and ammonia metabolism and the control of renal nitrogen excretion. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10, 1444–1458.

Wihastuti, T.A., Sargowo, D., Widodo, M.A., Heriansyah, T., Soeharto, S., Anita, K.W. & Aini, N.Q., 2015, ‘Effects of subchronic exposure of PSP Ganoderma lucidum on renal function and histopathology feature in Rattus novergicus wistar strain’, Nat. J. Physiol. Pharma. Pharmacol. 5(4), 296-302

Yamthe, L.R., David, K. & Ngadena, Y.M., 2012, ‘Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Carica papaya Linn. in Wistar rats’, J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour. 2, 617–627.

Yong, T., Chen, S., Xie, Y., Chen, D., Su, J., Shuai, O., Jiao, C. & Zuo, D., 2018, ‘Hypouricemic effects of Ganoderma applanatum in hyperuricemia mice through OAT1 and GLUT9. Front Pharmacol. 8(996), 01-11.

Zhong, D., Wang, H., Liu, M., Li, X., Huang, M., Zhou, H., Lin, S., Lin, Z.& Yang, B.,2015, ‘Ganoderma lucidumpolysaccharide peptide prevents renal ischemia reperfusion injury via counteracting oxidative stress’, Sci. Rep. 5(16910):1-14.

Garba, SH., Sambo, N. & Bala, U., 2009, ‘The effect of the aqueous extract of Kohautia grandiflora on paracetamol-induced liver damage in albino rats’, Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 24(1):17-23.

Sireatawong, S., Lertprasertsuke, N., Srisawat U., Thuppia, A., Ngamjariyawat, S., Suwanlikhid, N. & Jaijoy, K., 2008, ‘Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of the water extract from Tiliacora trianora (Colebr.)Diels in rats’, Songklankar. J. Sci. Technol.vol. 30(6): 729–737.

Devaki, K., Beulah, U., Akila, G. & Gopalakrishnan, V K., 2012, ‘Effect of aqueous extract of Passiflora edulis on biochemical and haematological parameters of Wistar Albino rats’, Toxicol. Int.19: 63-7.

Kuatsienu, LE., Ansah, C., Adinortey, MB., 2017, ‘Toxicological evaluation and protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Launaea taraxacifolia on gentamicin induced rat kidney injury’, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 7(7): 640–646


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3359 | views : 2309


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)
 ISSN 2406-9086
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada