Determination of FICI of Ethanolic Extract of Aloe Vera Skin Leaves (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.) and Gentamicin Sulphate againts Staphylococcus aureus

https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.31551

Rifani Amalia(1*), Rafika Sari(2), Robiyanto Robiyanto(3)

(1) Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak
(2) Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura, Pontianak
(3) Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura, Pontianak
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The main therapy of wounds infection using antibiotic such as gentamicin sulfate can be applied topically. Increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance forces new strategy to combine plant extract and antibiotic. These two combinations are expected to reduce the incidence of microbial resistance. Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera skin leaves contain anthraquinone that has antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect and Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) from combination of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera skin leaves and gentamicin sulphate which can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination was used Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The concentration of extract solution used were 1,25; 2,5; 5; 10 mg/mL while the solution concentration of gentamicin sulfate used were 2,5; 5; 15; 25 µg/mL. Solution DMSO was used as negative control. Combination solution was made with volume ratio 1:1 from MIC of extract and gentamicin shulphate. The result showed that the MIC of the of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera skin leaves was about 2.5 mg/mL and MIC gentamicin sulphate was about 5 µg/mL. Combination of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera skin leaves and gentamicin sulfate can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 7,63 mm. FICI of combination was 2 and its antibacterial activity was indifferent compared to single extract and single gentamicin sulphate.

Keywords


Ekstrak etanol; kulit daun lidah buaya; gentamisin sulfat; MIC; FICI; Ethanolic extract; Aloe vera skin leaves; gentamicin sulphate; MIC; FICI

Full Text:

PDF


References

Banu, A., Sathyanarayana, B.C., Chattanavar, G. 2015. Efficacy of Aloe vera gel againts multi-drug resistant bacteria in infected leg ulcers. AMJ. 5(6): 305-309.

Benzie, I.F.F., and Galor, S.W. 2011. Herbal Medicine : Biomolecular and Clinical Aspect. 2nd ed. CRC Press, New york. 39.

Blesson, J., Sajin, C.V., Nivya, R.M., Kumar, R. 2015. Synergistic antibacterial activity of natural plant extracts and antibiotics againts Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). WJPPS. 4(3): 741-763.

Brooks, G.F., Carrollm K.C., Butel, J.S., Murse, S.A., Mietzner, T.A. 2013. Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg’s: Medical Microbiology. 26th ed. Mc-Graw Hill, New York. 382, 384-399.

Chang, H.M., and But, P.P.H. 2001. Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica. Volume I. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore. 70-71.

Chiang, H.M., Lin, Y.T., Hsiao, P.L., Su, Y.H., Tsao, H.T., Wen, K.C. 2012. Determination of marked components aloin and aloe emodin in Aloe vera before and after hydrolisis. JFDA. 20(3): 646-652.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2014. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twenty-Fourth Informational Supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, USA. 30,68.

Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2008. Farmakope Herbal. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta. 174.

Dipiro, J.T., Talbert, R.L., Yee, G.C., Matzke, G.R., Wells, B.G., Posey, L.M. 2008. Pharmacotheraphy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 7th ed. Mc-Graw Hill, New York. 1720-1721, 1725.

Doughetry, T.J., and Pucci, M.J. 2012. Antibiotic Discovery and Development. Springer, New York. 151.

El Sayed, A.M., Ezzat, S.M., El Naggar, M.M., EL Hawary, S.S. 2016. In vivo diabetic wound healing effect and hplc-dad-esi-ms/ms profiling of the methanol extracts of eight Aloe spesies. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 26: 352-362.

Gunawan, D., dan Mulyani S. 2004. Ilmu Obat Alam (Farmakogmosi). Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta. 81,83.

He, C.L., Fu, B.D., Shen, H.Q., Jiang, X.L., Wei, X.B. 2011. Fumaric acid, an antibacterial component of Aloe vera L. Afr J Biotechnol. 10(15): 2973-2977.

Kambizi, L., Sultana, N., Afolayan, A.J. Bioactive compounds isolated from Aloe ferox: a plant traditionally used for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Pharm. Biol. 2004; 42(8): 636-639.

Kammoun, M., Miladi, S., Ali, Y.B., Damak, M., Gargouri, Y., Bezzine, S. 2011. In vitro study of the PLA-2 inhibition and antioxidant activities of Aloe vera leaf skin extracts. Lipids health dis. 10: 1-7.

Kon K, dan Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris Essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nus Biosci. 4(1): 50-56.

Konate K, Mavoungou JF, Lepengue AN, Aworet-Samseny RRR, Hilou A, Souza A, et al. 2012. Antibacterial activity againts β-lactamase producing methicillin and ampicillin-resistants Staphylococcus aureus: Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 1-12.

Kumar, S. 2016. Essentials of Microbiology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi. 560-561.

Kumar S, Yadav M, Yadav A, Yadav JP. 2015. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of Aloe vera and quantification of aloe-emodin collected from different climatic zones of India. ACMICROB. 6(2): 1-10.

Matuschek, E., Brown, D.F.J., Kahlmeter, G. 2013. Development of the EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing method and its implementation in routine microbiology laboratories. CMI. 20 (4): 255-266.

Mayrhofer, S., Domig, K.J., Mair, C., Zitz, U., Huys, G., Kneifel, W. 2008. Comparison of broth microdilution, Etest, and agar disk diffusion methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Lactobacillus acidophilus group members. Appl Environ Microbiol. 74 (12) : 3745-3748.

Olajuyigbe, O.O., and Ofalayan, A.J. 2013. Evaluation of combination effects of ethanolic extract of Zizipus mucronata Willd. Subsp. Mucronata Willd. and antibiotics againts clinically important bacteria. Sci World J. 1-9.

Pandey R, and Mishra, A. 2010. Antibacterial activities of crude extract of Aloe barbadensis to clinically isolated bacterial pathogens. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 160: 1356-1361.

Perim, M.C., Borges, J. da C., Celeste, S.R.C., Orsolin, E. de F., Mendes, R.R., Mendes, G.O., et al. 2015. Aerobic bacterial profile and antibiotic resistance in patients with diabetic foot infections. RSBMT. 48(5): 546-554.

Pratiwi, S.T. 2008. Mikrobiologi Farmasi. Erlangga, Jakarta. 188. Rakholiya, K., and Chanda, S. 2012. In vitro interaction of certain antimicrobial agents in combination with plant extracts againts some phatogenic bacterial strains. APJTB. 1466-1470.

Sari, N., 2017, Penentuan Nilai MIC Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Lidah Buaya (Aloe vera Linn) Terhadap Isolat Bakteri Pseudomonas aeruginosa Resisten Antibiotik, Skripsi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Tanjungpura.

Sharita, K., Rajesh, A., Manjulatha, K., Setty, O.H., Yenugu, S. 2015. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. Ex Shult, Leucas aspea (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. Ex Shult. Frontiers in Microbilogy. 6: 1-9.

Singh, A., Sharma, P.K., Majumdar, D.K. 20.17. Susceptibility and comparative bioassay study for determination of fluconazole concentrations in Candida spp. By both macrodilution and disk diffusion methods. Indian J Exp Biol. 20: 377-382.

Siswandono, dan Soekardjo, B. 2008. Kimia Medisinal. Airlangga University Press, Surabaya. Zimbro, M.J., Power, D.A., Miller, S.M., Wilson, G.E., Johnson, J.A. 2009. Difco & BBL Manual: Manual of Microbiological Culture Media. 2nd ed. Becton Dickinson, Maryland. 371-372.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.31551

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 605 | views : 895

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Trad.Med.J) 
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada