Antibacterial Compound Identification of Cayenne Pepper Leaf Extract (Capsicum frutescens L.) against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Cell Leakage Mechanism

https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.31550

Riri Fauziyya(1*), Laela Hayu Nurani(2), Nanik Sulistyani(3)

(1) Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan University
(2) Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan University
(3) Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan University
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma that can be caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study aims to determine the active fraction of cayenne pepper leaves on the growth of K. pneumoniae. Cayenne pepper leaf which previously defatted using n-hexane was macerated with 95% ethanol, then fractionated successively with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Ethanol extract and each fraction with concentration of 40% were tested for their antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae using disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). 1% amoxicillin was used as positive control and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative control. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the most active fraction was then determined. Determination of antibacterial compound in the most active fraction was carried out by TLC-bioautography and followed by Gass Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry. Cell leakage analysis was performed using UV spectrophotometry to detect the release of protein and nucleic acid, as well as Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used to detect ion release of K+ and Ca2+. The results showed that the most active fraction against K. pneumoniae was the ethyl acetate fraction with MIC value of 10% and inhibition zone of 7.25±0.25 mm. TLC-Bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction with eluen n-hexane: ethyl acetate (6:4) obtained an active stain at Rf 0.12. Compounds having 94% similarity with 1-propanol, 2-amino was predicted as the active compound.

Keywords


Klebesiella pneumoniae; daun cabai rawit; fraksi teraktif; antibakteri; Klebsiella pneumoniae; cayenne paper leaf; most active fraction; antibacterial

Full Text:

PDF


References

Agusta. A., Jamal. Y., Irawati. P., Fathoni. A., 2013, Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial Effect of Essential Oil of Javaneese Pepper Leaves (Piper retrofractum Vahl.), Media Litbangkes, 23(2):65-72.

Bakalova S., Mincheva V., Doycheva A., Groudeva V., Dimkov R., 2008, Microbial Toxicity of Ethanolamines, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 22(2):716-720.

Bunduki M.M., Flanders K.J., dan Donelly. C.W., 1995, Metabolic and Stuctural Sites of Damage in Heat and Sanitizer-Injured population of Listeria monocytogenes, J. Food Protect, 58:410-415.

Bustanussalam, Susilo. H., dan Nurhidayati. E., 2012. Identifikasi Senyawa dan Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Etil Asetat Kulit Kayu Massoi (Cryptocarpa massoy). Fitofarmaka. 2(1): 67-76.

Cowan, M.M., 1999, Plant Products as Microbial Agents, Clinical Microbial Review, 12(4): 564-582.

Cushniea, T.P.T., Cushnie. B., dan Lambc. A.J., 2014, Alkaloids: an Overview of Their Antibacterial, Antibiotic-Enhancing and Antivirulence Activities. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 44:377–386.

Defraine, Valerie., 2017. Preclinical assessment of a propanol-amine derivative as a novel anti-persister molecule candidate for antibacterial co-therapy. Disertasi. Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappe (Faculty of Bioscience Engineering), Belgium. Diambil dari: https://www.biw.kuleuven.be/apps/fbiw/doctoreren/fiche.aspx?fid=1465 diakses 20 Oktober 2017.

Dinkes Kabupaten Indagiri Hulu. 12 November 2015. Peringatan Hari Pneumonia Sedunia 2015: Wujudkan Akses Pencegahan dan Penatalaksanaan Pneumonia. Diambil dari: http://dinkes.inhukab.go.id/?p=3224 diakses 5 Mei, 2017.

Djajanegara, I., dan Wahyudi, P., 2009. Pemakaian Sel HeLa dalam Uji Sitotoksisitas Fraksi Kloroform dan Etanol Ekstrak Daun Annona squamosa. Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia. 7(1):7-11.

Dwisari D., Dharma S., dan Al Khaira N. Q., 2015, Perbandingan Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Defatting dan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Benalu Kopi Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Mencit Putih Jantan, SCIENTIA, 5(2).

Effendi, N., 2012. Standarisasi Simplisia Daun Hantap (Sterculia coccinea Jack) Asal Kabupaten Donggala Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah sebagai Bahan Baku Sediaan Fitofarmaka. Jurnal Sainsmat. 1(1):23-32.

Fadhli, H., Teruna, H., dan Jose. C., 2012. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Kulit Batang Pulai Basung (Alstonia spatulata Bl) dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. J. Ind.Che.Acta. 3(1):10-15.

Harborne, J.B.,1987. Metode Fitokimia Penuntun Cara Modern Menganalisis Tumbuhan. Edisi I. ITB. Bandung. Jackson. T., Stephens. J. R., Matthew. J., dan Pete, 2015, Bioactive Heme-Haloperoxidase Compositions and Methods of Their Use, United States Patent Aplication Publication, US 20150196025. Kohanski M.A., Dwyer D.J., dan Collins J.J., 2010. How Antibiotics Kill Bacteria: from Target to Networks, Nat Rev Microbiol. 8:423-35. Layne. E., 1957, Spectrophotometric and Turbidimetric Methods for Measuring Proteins. Method Enzymol. 3:447-455. Lestari, P.A., Abdur, R., dan Indra, W., 2016. Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Cabe Rawit (Capsicum frutescens L.) terhadap Penghambatan Pertumbuhan Bakteri Escherichia coli secara Invitro. Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Praktis. 1(2):1-5. Linacero, J., Rueda dan Vazquez. A.M., 1998, Quantification of DNA, 18-21, Dalam Isaac, G., Ingram, D.S., (Eds.). Molecular Tools for Screening Biodiversity: Plants and Animals. Chapman and Hall. London. Weinheim, New York. Tokyo. Melbourne. Madras. Muhtadi, Ambarwati, R., dan Yuliani, R., 2012. Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol dan Fraksi Kulit Batang Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.) terhadap Bakteri Klebsiella pneumoniae dan Staphylococcus epidermidis beserta Bioautografinya. Biomedika. 4(2):1-9. Muscari. 2005. Panduan Belajar Keperawatan Pediatrik. Edisi 3. EGC. Jakarta. Muthoharoh, A., dan Zainab. 2015. Penapisan Fitokimia, Penetapan Kadar Naftokuinon Total, dan Aktivitas Antifungi Fraksi Tidak Larut Etil Asetat Ekstrak Etanol Daun Pacar Kuku (Lawsonia inermis L.) terhadap Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Pharmaҫiana. 5(2):199-208. Nascimento, P. L. A., Nascimento, T. C. E. S., Ramos, N. S. M., Silva, G. R., Gomes, J. E. G., Falcão, R. E. A., Moreira, K. A., Porto, A. L. F., dan Silva, T. M. S., 2014, Quantification, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Phenolics Isolated from Different Extracts of Capsicum frutescens (Pimenta Malagueta), Molecules, 19:5434-5447. Nikaido. H., dan Vaara. M., 1985, Molecular Basis of Bacterial Outer Membrane Permeability, Microb Reviews. 49(1):1-32. Nychas. G. J. E., dan Tassou. C. C., 2000, Traditional Preservative-Oil and Spices, Dalam: Robinson. R. K., Batt. C. A., Patel. P. D., (Ed) Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology Volume 2. Academy Press. London, 1717-1722. Peter, G.M., Peter, A.A., Joyce, O., Esther, N.M., dan Christine. C., 2013. Antimicrobial Activity and Probable Mechanisms of Action of Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus. PLOS ONE. 8(6):1-9. Rahim, A., Wahyudin, I., Lusyana, E., Aprilianti, E., Shofa, Z.N., Widyaningrum, N., 2014. Efektifitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanolik Daun Cabe Rawit (Capsicum frutescens L.) terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dengan Metode Difusi: Uji Pendahuluan Potensi Tanaman Obat Tradisional Sebagai Alternatif Pengobatan Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan. Prosiding SNST Fakultas Teknik. 1(1):7-12 Ratnam, K.V., dan Raju, R.R.V., 2008. In vitro Antimicrobial Screening of the Fruit Extracts of Two Syzygium Species (Myrtaceae). Advances in Biological Research. 2(1-2):17-20. Salni, H.M., dan Mukti. R.W., 2011. Isolasi Senyawa Antibakteri Dari Daun Jengkol (Pithecolobium lobatum Benth) dan Penentuan Nilai KHM-nya. Jurnal Penelitian Sains. 14(1):37-41. Sastroamidjojo, H. 1991. Kromatografi. Universitas Gajah Mada. Yogyakarta. Shann, F., 1986. Etiology of Severe Pneumonia in Children in Developing Countries. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 5:247-52. Suliantari, 2009, Aktivitas Antibakteri dan Mekanisme Penghambatan Ekstrak Sirih Hijau (Piper betle Linn) terhadap Bakteri Patogen Pangan, Disertasi, Jurusan Ilmu Pangan, Sekolah Pascasarjana, IPB, Bogor. Sylvester, W.S., Son, R., Lew, K.F., dan Rukayadi, 2015. Y., Antibacterial activity of Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) extract against Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from several vegetables. International Food Research Journal. 22(5):1770-1776. Vandepitte, J., Engbaek, K., Piot, P., Heuck, C.C., dan Rohner, P., 2003. Basic Laboratory Procedures in Clinical Bacteriology. 2nd Ed. World Health Organization. Geneva. 118-119. Vinayaka, K.S., Nandini, K.C., Rakshitha, M.N., Ramya, M., Shruthi, J., Shruthi, V.H., 2010. Proximate Composition, Antibacterial and Anthelmintic Activity of Capsicum frutescens (L.) Var. Longa (Solanaceae) Leaves. Phcog J. 2(12):486–491. Zardini, H, Z., Davarpanah, M., Shanbedi, M., Amiri, A., Maghrebi, M., dan Ebrahimi, L., 2014, Microbial toxicity of ethanolamines—Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, J Biomed Mater Res A, 102(6):1774-1781.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.31550

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 875 | views : 1975

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Trad.Med.J) 
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada