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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The manuscript is your own original work and doesn't duplicate any of published work, including your own previously published work.
  • The manuscript has not been previously published, nor it is under consideration in other journals (unless an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The author(s) fill in the Declaration of Originality and upload it as "Supplementary files" in the submission process.
  • The corresponding author must provide a cover letter (in English) and upload it as "Supplementary files" in the submission process.
  • The manuscript is written in the proper English language and has been checked by a native/fluent English speaker or an English language proofreading service.
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format (.doc/.docx).
  • The text is double-spaced; uses as 12 point, times new roman, including abstract and table.
  • The format adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • When available, provide two suggestions of suitable reviewers for the manuscript along with their emails and phone numbers in the "Comments for the Editor" field.
  • The manuscript contains nothing that is abusive, defamatory, libellous, obscene, fraudulent, or illegal.

Author Guidelines

Submission should be done online at our website https://journal.ugm.ac.id/v3/jtbb.  An acknowledgment letter will be sent to the corresponding author's email address posthaste of submission. This letter indicates that we have received your submission and not as an indicator of the journal's acceptance.

The author(s) must fill in the Declaration of Originality (can be downloaded here) and Cover Letter (can be downloaded here) and upload them as "Supplementary files" in the submission process. Without these letters, the submission will be rejected.

We encourage all authors to register for an ORCID iD (ORCiD) and include their ORCiD in their author profile at or before manuscript submission.


1. Article Types

Research article

Research articles are comprehensive research reports containing detailed descriptions of experimental work, clearly interpreting and discussing the theoretical and experimental results and data. Research articles should be arranged in the headings Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgment, Nomenclature/Appendix (if applicable), and References. The normal length of the manuscript is 15 - 20 pages double-spaced (5000 words). The abstract must not exceed 250 words. The manuscript template of the research article can be downloaded here.

Short communications

Short communications are concise documents for providing brief novel findings that have inadequate content to satisfy a full-length research article. They are intended to be used for the reporting of preliminary studies or short descriptive studies.

Short communications are limited to 3000 words. The manuscript should be arranged in the same way as Research Articles, except it is only divided into an introduction, main body, and references and should include no more than six figures or tables combined. The abstract must not exceed 100 words. The manuscript template of the short communications can be downloaded here.

Review article

Review articles can be used either the conventional review method or the systematic review method. A systematic review is a review of a formulated question that uses systematic and reproducible methods to identify, select, and critically appraise all relevant research, and to collect and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review.

The reviews should be divided into sections with relevant headings. The format of the References section is the same as that of the Research Articles. While there is no restriction on the length of the review, it is recommended that the manuscript contain no more than 40 pages double-spaced, including display items and references. References should be no more than 80. The abstract must not exceed 250 words.


2. General Instructions

  • Manuscripts must be written in English. Pay attention to the consistency of language in the writing and the grammar.
  • Format manuscripts for A4 (21 x 30 cm) paper.
  • Number all pages sequentially.
  • Number all lines in the text beginning on the title page
  • Use Times New Roman 12 pt font. Use italics only for scientific names.
  • Use only left margin justify. Indent the first sentence of all paragraphs.
  • Double-space throughout, including title page, abstract, literature cited, tables, and figure legends.
  • Leave at least a 2.5 cm (1 inch) margin on all sides.
  • Use metric units of measurement.


3. Title page information

3.1. Title

Concise and informative, yet not overly general. Use the same language as the main text. If appropriate, include the species or ecosystem that was the subject of the study, or the location where the study was done. Titles are often used in information retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

3.2. Author names and affiliations

Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

3.3. Corresponding author

Indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, as well as post-publication.  Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.  Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

3.4. Present/permanent address

If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


4. Abstract and keywords

4.1. Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required, the maximum length is 250 words for Research and Review articles, and 100 words for Short Communication. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the methods used, the principal results, and major conclusions. Please try to keep each sentence as specific as possible, and avoid such general statements as "The management implications of the results are discussed". An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

4.2. Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


5. Abbreviations

Abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


6. Article structure

6.1. Subdivision - numbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Avoid using more than three levels of subsection. Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its separate line.

6.2. Introduction

State clear questions as research objectives that can be answered with data analysis, and declare hypotheses at the end of the introduction section. Avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. 

6.3. Material and methods

Elaborate your method such as the data gathering, processing, and analysis to answer the declared questions. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Provide statistical analyses for questions related to differences (one sample to multiple samples tests) and relationships (correlations and regressions), instead of merely observing the differences or relationships based on graphs.

6.4. Results and Discussion

Results should be clear and concise. The result should provide analysis, appropriate figures, tables, and statistical test outputs to support the answers.

The discussion should explore the significance of the work. Provide clear discussion by interpreting and connecting your results with related key findings from published literature. However, avoid extensive citations and do not over-discuss the result of the published literature.

If appropriate, Results can be written in a separate section from the Discussion. This is especially true if the Discussion is extensive and includes all the Results of the study.

6.5. Conclusions

The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short Conclusions section which stands alone.

6.6. Author contribution

Please list the contribution of each author here, e.g.: M.I. designed the research and supervised all the process, L.A. collected and analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript.

6.7. Acknowledgements

Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance, proofreading the article, etc.).

6.8. Conflict of Interest

Please state any conflict of interest regarding the research or the research funding.

6.9. Glossary

If necessary, please supply (as a separate list) the definitions of field-specific terms used in your article.

6.10. Appendices

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1), and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.


7. Additional information

7.1. Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance with the funder's requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa]. It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions of the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding. If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: “This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors”

7.2. Nomenclature and Units

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI) for all scientific and laboratory data. If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI.  Common names must be in lowercase except for proper nouns. All common names must be followed by a scientific name in parentheses in italics. For example, Amboina box turtle (Cuora amboinensis). Where scientific names are used in preference to common names they should be in italics and the genus should be reduced to the first letter after the first mention. For example, the first mention is given as Cuora amboinensis, and subsequent mentions are given as Camboinensis.

7.3. Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


8. Figures and tables

8.1. Figures

Please embed the figures in the text with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. Separate figure files in JPEG or PNG formats can be supplied if it feels necessary. Ensure that each figure has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the figure. Keep text in the figure themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

8.2. Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.

8.3. Graphs

Graphs must be supplied in figure formats. The fonts of the graph must be clear and readable. Black and white graphs are preferred.


9. References

9.1. Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. The citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

9.2. Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

9.3. Reference formatting

Reference must be formatted according to Harvard style at the submission. Harvard citation style file for reference manager (Mendeley, Zotero, etc.) can be downloaded here. Note that submissions with incorrect reference formatting will be returned for revision. The format of the references can be seen in the following examples described in the section below.

9.4. Reference style

9.4.1. Text

All citations in the text should refer to:

  • Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication (Ratledge 2002);
  • Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication (Triyaswati & Ilmi 2020);
  • Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication (Papanikolaou et al. 2011).

Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically).

9.4.2. List

References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.



Reference to a journal publication or conference proceeding:

Whittle, C.A., 2006. The influence of environmental factors, the pollen : ovule ratio and seed bank persistence on molecular evolutionary rates in plants. J Evol Biol., 19(1), pp.302–308. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2005.00977.x.

Flynn, A.J. & Klepadlo, C., 2012. Two new species of Photonectes (Teleostei: Stomiidae) from the Indo-Pacific, and a re-examination of P. Achirus. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 69, pp.259–267. doi: 10.24199/j.mmv.2012.69.04.

Zulwanis et al., 2020. The expression of AtRKD4 transgene during induction of somatic embryogenesis in transgenic dendrobium phalaenopsis Orchid Carrying 35S::GR::AtRKD4. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2260. doi: 10.1063/5.0015873.

Latifah, R., Suhermiatin, T. & Ermawati, N., 2017. Optimasi Pertumbuhan Plantlet Cattleya Melalui Kombinasi Kekuatan Media Murashige-Skoog dan Bahan Organik. Agriprima : Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences, 1(1), pp.59–62. doi: 10.25047/agriprima.v1i1.20.

Reference to a book:

Crosetto, N. et al., 2013. Nucleotide-resolution DNA double-strand break mapping by next-generation sequencing, Nature Publishing Group.

Laudon, K.C. & Laudon, J.P., 2003. Essentials of management information systems: Managing the digital firm, Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

Yang, X., 2014. Scale-Up of Microbial Fermentation Process. In Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Washington, DC, USA: ASM Press, pp. 669–675. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch47.

Reference to thesis:

Ningrum, W.D.A., 2016. Shoot Induction and the Expression of Dendrobium Orchid Homeobox 1 Gene with Peptone Addition in the in Vitro Culture Medium of Dendrobium lineale Rolfe Orchid. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Reference to a website:

Arch, A. & Letourneau, C., 2002, 'Auxiliary Benefits of Accessible Web Design', in W3C Web Accessibility initiative, viewed 26 February 2004, from http://www.w3.org/WAI/bcase/benefits.html.

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