Study of the Effect of Humidity and Pollutants on the Performance of 20 kV Arrester Isolators

  • Naufal Hilmi Fauzan Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Sasongko Pramonohadi Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Muhammad Ariq Achnida Syam Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Rafi Ramadhana Ardiantara Universitas Gadjah Mada
Keywords: Arrester, Isolator, Breakdown Voltage, Humidity, Pollutant, NSDD, ESDD


An arrester is a device that serves to protect equipment from dielectric failure caused by lightning impulses, switching surges, or voltage spikes that exceed an equipment’s dielectric capability. The majority of arresters have an event counter installed, which is used to track how frequently they have been in use. In humid and heavily polluted environmental conditions, it is very easy for surface discharge to occur on the isolator. Surface discharge is a discharge that occurs in an area directly related to a dielectric surface that has an excess electric field, thus triggering a discharge. If a surface discharge continues to happen, it can result in a flashover. Flashover that hits part of the event counter can make the event counter experience error, so it does not show the correct number. In addition, the performance of the event counter will be disrupted. For this reason, it is necessary to test the arrester insulators with three schemes: clean condition insulators, humid condition insulators, and insulators with humid and polluted conditions. In this experiment, pollutants were used with an equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) value of 4.69 mg/cm2 and a nonsoluble deposit density (NSDD) value of 1.8841 mg/cm2. According to the experiment results, it was found that there was a decrease in the ability of arrester insulation to withstand voltage caused by humidity and pollutants. Humidity decreased breakdown voltage (BDV) by 5.8 kV for every 5% increase in humidity, while pollutants decreased BDV by 59 kV when the insulator was exposed to pollutants.


IEEE Standard for the Electrical Protection of Communications Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations -- General Considerations, IEEE Std 487, IEEE Standard Association, New York, USA, 2015, doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2015.7172981.

S. Das, R. Ghosh, S. Dalai, and B. Chatterjee, “Study on the Effect of Moisture Ingression into Metal Oxide Surge Arrester Using Leakage Current Analysis,” 2017 3rd Int. Conf. Condition Assess. Techn. Elect. Syst. (CATCON), 2017, pp. 330–334, doi: 10.1109/CATCON.2017.8280239.

D.E. Yunida, “Tegangan Residu Keping Arester sebagai Fungsi dari Cacah Keping Arester,” J. Nas. Tek. Elekt., Teknol. Inf., Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 231–235, Aug. 2014, doi: 10.22146/jnteti.v3i3.93.

E. Perdana, S. Hidayat, and R. Zoro, “Lightning Protection System on Overhead Distribution Line Using Multi Chamber Arrester,” 2nd IEEE Conf. Power Eng., Renew. Energy (ICPERE) 2014, 2014, pp. 70–74, doi: 10.1109/ICPERE.2014.7067246.

X. Xie, X. Tao, S. Pang, and Y. Chen, “Lightning Overvoltage Simulation Research of Typical 35kV Overhead Lines,” 2021 IEEE Int. Conf. Adv. Elect. Eng., Comput. Appl. (AEECA), 2021, pp. 191–196, doi: 10.1109/AEECA52519.2021.9574417.

J.P. Holtzhausen (1992) “High Voltage Insulators,” [Online],, access date: 22-Nov-2022.

D.G. Crosby, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. New York, USA: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1998.

X. Ma, Y. Meng, Y. Du, and K. Wu, “Investigation of Surface Charge Distribution and Its Influence on Characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge,” 2018 12th Int. Conf. Prop., Appl. Dielectr. Mater. (ICPADM), 2018, pp. 1065–1069, doi: 10.1109/ICPADM.2018.8401228.

Z. Zhijin et al., “Characterization of Silicone Rubber Degradation under Salt-Fog Environment with AC Test Voltage,” IEEE Access, Vol. 7, pp. 66714–66724, May 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2917700.

E. Kuffel, W.S. Zaengl, and J. Kuffel, High Voltage Engineering: Fundamentals, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann: 2000.

L. Fan, Y. Rui, Y. Wang, and Y. Yin, “The Study of Surface Flashover Affected by Corona Discharging via Non-invasive Surface Potential Measurement,” 2020 Int. Symp. Elect. Insul. Mater. (ISEIM), 2020, pp. 490–493.

C. Liu et al., “Flashover Performance of Porcelain Post Insulator with Full-Clad Booster Shed,” 2018 IEEE/PES Transmiss., Distrib. Conf., Expo. (T&D), 2018, pp. 1–5, doi: 10.1109/TDC.2018.8440283.

H. Ye, Z. Zhong, and R. Liu, “Research on Insulator Creepage Distance Measurement Based on Edge Detection,” 2019 IEEE 3rd Inf. Technol. Netw. Electron., Automat. Control Conf. (ITNEC), 2019, pp. 2219–2223, doi: 10.1109/ITNEC.2019.8729175.

H. Ye, R. Liu, and X. Cheng, “Research on Insulator Creepage Distance Measurement Based on Feature Extraction,” 2019 6th Int. Conf. Inf. Sci., Control Eng. (ICISCE), 2019, pp. 1127–1130, doi: 10.1109/ICISCE48695.2019.00227.

D.A. Sulistyanto, H. Hermawan, and A. Syakur, “Analisis Arus Bocor dan Tegangan Flashover pada Isolator Suspensi 20 KV 3 Sirip dengan 4 Tipe Sirip Berbahan Polimer Resin Epoksi Silane Silika,” Transient: J. Ilm. Tek. Elekt., Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 226–232, Dec. 2012, doi: 10.14710/TRANSIENT.V1I4.226-232.

L. Ming, L. Yangyang, and H. Jianlin, “Influence of Sheds Damage on the AC Pollution Flashover Performance of Different Voltage Class Composite Insulators,” IEEE Access, Vol. 8, pp. 84713–84719, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2991117.

H. Li, Y. Song, G. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Study on the Different Law Between NSDD and ESDD in Natural Environment,” 2009 IEEE 9th Int. Conf. Prop., Appl. Dielectr. Mater., 2009, pp. 690–692, doi: 10.1109/ICPADM.2009.5252337.

IEC, Jenewa, Swiss. Selection and Dimensioning of High-Voltage Insulators Intended for Use in Polluted Conditions-Part 1: Definitions, Information and General Principles, (2008). Access date: 22-Nov-2022. [Online].

A. Banik, S. Dalai, and B. Chatterjee, “Condition Monitoring of Overhead Line Insulator by Measuring Surface Leakage Current,” 2014 Annu. IEEE India Conf. (INDICON), 2014, pp. 1–5, doi: 10.1109/INDICON.2014.7030540.

J. Dey, S. Dutta, A. Baral, and S. Chakravorti, “Leakage Current Monitoring of Suspension Insulator for Effective Determination of ESDD,” 2019 8th Int. Conf. Power Syst. (ICPS), 2019, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/ICPS48983.2019.9067562.

C. Xuezhen et al., “Natural Pollution Characteristics Analysis of XP-70 Insulators Based on ESDD and Microscopic Particle Image Analysis Method,” 2020 Tsinghua - HUST-IET Elect. Eng. Acad. Forum, 2020, pp. 1–8, doi: 10.1049/cp.2020.0007.

E.A. Feilat and A. Al-Maqrashi, “ESDD- and DDDG-Based Assessment of Insulator Pollution Levels in Oman,” 2011 IEEE GCC Conf., Exhib. (GCC), 2011, pp. 593–596, doi: 10.1109/IEEEGCC.2011.5752602.

W. Shi et al., “Analysis on the Natural Pollution Characteristics of Metal-Oxide Surge Arrester with Different External Insulation Material,” 2020 5th Asia Conf. Power, Elect. Eng. (ACPEE), 2020, pp. 2237–2241, doi: 10.1109/ACPEE48638.2020.9136496.

Z. Yan, Y. Wang, R. Huang, and L. Tian, “Study on Natural Contamination Depositing Characteristics of Insulator of EHV Transmission Line in High Altitude Salt Lake Area,” 2019 IEEE 3rd Int. Elect., Energy Conf. (CIEEC), 2019, pp. 979–984, doi: 10.1109/CIEEC47146.2019.CIEEC-2019370.

S. Gao et al., “Study on the Surface Contamination of Insulators with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technique,” 2018 Int. Conf. Power Syst. Technol. (POWERCON), 2018, pp. 3417–3422, doi: 10.1109/POWERCON.2018.8601766.

R. Vinothkumar, G. Kannayeram, and G. Shunmugalakshmi, “Investigation of Natural and Artificial Contamination on Various Types of Insulators,” 2015 Int. Conf. Innov. Inf. Embed., and Commun. Syst. (ICIIECS), 2015, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1109/ICIIECS.2015.7192933.

N.L. Praba and L. Kalaivani, “Analysing the Performance for Outer Shed Insulator with Non-Uniform Pollution,” 2019 Fifth Int. Conf. Elect. Energy Syst. (ICEES), 2019, pp. 1–4. doi: 10.1109/ICEES.2019.8719285.

How to Cite
Naufal Hilmi Fauzan, Sasongko Pramonohadi, Muhammad Ariq Achnida Syam, & Rafi Ramadhana Ardiantara. (2023). Study of the Effect of Humidity and Pollutants on the Performance of 20 kV Arrester Isolators. Jurnal Nasional Teknik Elektro Dan Teknologi Informasi, 12(2), 151-157.