Cyclooxygenase (COX) and 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) Inhibitory Activity and HPTLC Profile of Asplenium Nidus, Diplazium Esculentum, and Drynaria Quercifolia in Bukidnon, Philippines
Diplazium esculentum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Asplenium nidus are among the fern species found in Bukidnon, Philippines which are used as traditional herbal medicines. The HPTLC profile and the anti-inflammatory properties against cyclooxygenase (COX) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) of the frond ethanolic extracts of D. esculentum, D. quercifolia, and A. nidus were determined. The High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) profile was obtained using ethyl acetate: formic acid: water (16:2:2) as mobile phase and Natural Products (NP) as derivatizing reagent. The HPTLC profile of the D. esculentum, D. quercifolia, and A. nidus extracts showed 10 (Rf = 0.02-0.97), 13 (Rf = 0.03-0.90), and 14 (Rf = 0.02-0.99) bands, respectively. The profiles for each fern species may be used as marker for quality evaluation and standardization of herbal formulations containing these plants. For the anti-inflammatory properties, D. esculentum and D. quercifolia extracts which inhibited more than 50% of the COX enzymes showed significantly higher activity than A. nidus and were considered active against COX-2 and COX-1. D. esculentum, however, gave a selectivity ratio (COX-2/COX-1) of 1.03 making its inhibitory activity selective against COX-2. The percent 15-LOX inhibitory activity of D. quercifolia (58.62%) is significantly higher than that of A. nidus (38.70%) but statistically comparable to D. esculentum (51.19%). Among the extracts, D. quercifolia and D. esculentum which inhibited more than 50% of the 15-LOX were considered active. D. esculentum and D. quercifolia can therefore be potential sources of anti-inflammatory lead compounds for future drug development.
Amoroso, V.B., D.A. Antesa, D.P. Buenavista & F.P. Coritico (2014). Antimicrobial, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities of selected Philippine medicinal pteridophytes. Asian Journal of Biodiversity, 5(1),18-40.
Amoroso, V.B., R.A. Mendez & A.P. Villalobos (2017). Bringing back the lost value of Philippine edible ferns: their antioxidant, proteins and utilization. Int. J. Adv. Res., 5(4), 757-770.
Anuja, G.I., P.G. Latha, S.R. Suja, S. Shyamal, V.J. Shine, S. Sini, S. Pradeep, P. Shikha & S. Rajasekharan (2010). Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. J. Ethnopharmacol., 132(2), 456-460.
Anuja, G.I., P.G. Latha, V.J. Shine, S.R. Suja, P. Shikha, K.K. Satheesh & S. Rajasekharan (2014). Antioedematous and analgesic properties of fertile fronds of Drynaria quercifolia. ISRN Inflammation, 2014, 1-8.
Auerbach, B.J, J.S. Kiely & J.A. Cornicelli (1992). A spectrophotometric microtiter-based assay for the detection of hydroperoxy derivatives of linoleic acid. Anal. Biochem., 201, 375-380.
Axelrod, B, T.M. Cheesbrough & S. Laakso (1981). Lipoxygenase from soybeans. Meth. Enzymol., 71, 441-451.
Azwanida,N.N. (2015). A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Med. Aromat. Plants., 4(3), 1-6.
Balunas, M.J. & A.D. Kinghorn (2005). Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci., 78(5), 431-441.
Bernardi, T., O. Bortolini, A. Massi, G. Sacchetti, M. Tacchini & C. De Risi (2019). Exploring the synergy between HPTLC and HPLC-DAD for the investigation of wine-making by-Products. Mol., 24, 1-16.
Bonner, A. & M.R. Fry (2012). Development of a fluorescence-based assay to detect cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of δ -lactone derivatives.22nd Annual Argonne Symposium for Undergraduates, Central States Incorporated, Argonne National, Argonne, IL.
Chai, T.T, L.Y. Yeoh, N.I.M. Ismail, H.C. Ong, F.A. Manan & F.C. Wong (2015). Evaluation of glucosidase inhibitory and cytotoxic potential of five selected edible and medicinal ferns. Trop. J. of Pharm. Res., 14(3), 449-454.
Das, H.B., K. Majumdar, B.K. Datta & D. Ray (2009). Ethnobotanical uses of some plants by Tripuri and Reang tribes of Tripura. Nat. Prod. Radiance, 8 (2), 172-180.
Feltenmark, S., N. Gautam, A. Brunnström, W. Griffiths, L. Backman, C. Edenius, L. Lindbom, M. Bjorkholm & H.E. Claesson (2008). Eoxins are proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites produced via the 15-lipoxygenase-1 pathway in human eosinophils and mast cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(2), 680-685.
Fiore, S. (2004). Arachidonic acid. Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology, 111-113. doi: 10.1016/b0-12-386860-2/00043-5
Gurib-Fakim, A. (2006). Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Mol. Aspects Med., 27(1), 1-93.
Howe, L.R. & A.J. Dannenberg (2002). A role for cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Semin. Oncol., 29 (3), Suppl 11: 111-119.
Jachak, S.M. (2006). Cyclooxygenase inhibitory natural products: Current status. Curr. Med. Chem. 13(6), 659-678.
Jarial, R., S. Thakur, M. Sakinah, A.W. Zularisam, A. Sharad, S.S. Kanwar & L. Singh (2018). Potent anticancer, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of isolated flavonoids from Asplenium nidus. J. King Saud Univ. Sci., 30(2), 185-192.
Junejo, J.A., A. Ghoshal, P. Mondal, L. Nainwal, K. Zaman, K.D. Singh & T. Chakraborty (2015). In-vivo toxicity evaluation and phytochemical, physicochemical analysis of Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. leaves a traditionally used North-Eastern Indian vegetable. Adv. Biores., 6(5), 175-181.
Kamboj, P. & A.N. Kalia (2013). Hepatoprotective effect of Drynaria quercifolia fronds hydroalcoholic extract and isolated constituent against CCl4-induced hepatocellular damage. Br. J. Pharm. Res., 3(4), 563-578.
Kaushik, A., J.J. Kaushik, A. Das, S. Gemal & D. Gaim (2011). Preliminary studies on anti-inflammatory activities of Diplazium esculentum in experimental animal models. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2(5), 1251-1253.
Kaushik, A., C. Jijta, J.J. Kaushik, R. Zeray, A. Ambesajir & L. Beyene (2012). FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay and effect of Diplazium esculentum (Retz) Sw. (a green vegetable of North India) on central nervous system. Indian J. Nat. Prod. Resour., 3 (2), 228-231.
Kelavkar, U.P, C. Cohen, H. Kamitani, T.E. Eling & K.F. Badr (2000). Concordant induction of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and mutant p53 expression in human prostate adenocarcinoma: correlation with Gleason staging. Carcinogenesis, 21(10), 1777-1787.
Koki, A.T. & J.L. MASFERRER (2002). Celecoxib: a specific COX-2 inhibitor with anticancer properties. Cancer Control, 9(2_suppl), 28-35.
Korwar, P.G., A.K. Beknal, B.S. Patil, M.A. Halkai, U. Kulkarni, R.C. Hariprasanna & S.R. Soodam (2010). A study on phytochemical investigation of Drynaria quercifolia Linn rhizome. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 1(12), 148-158.
Kühn, H., J. Belkner, S. Zaiss, T. Fährenklemper & S. Wohlfeil (1994). Involvement of 15-lipoxygenase in early stages of atherogenesis. J. Exp. Med., 179(6), 1903-1911.
Lai, H.Y., Y.Y. Lim & S.P. Tan (2009). Antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial activities of leaf extracts from medicinal ferns. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 73, 1-5.
Lai, H. & Y. LIM (2011). Evaluation of antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of selected ferns in Malaysia. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev., 2(6), 442-447.
Liang, Y.Z., P. Xie & K. Chan (2004). Quality control of herbal medicines. J. Chromatogr. B., 812(1-2), 53-70.
Lordan, R., A. Tsoupras & L. Zabetakis (2019). Inflammation. The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases, 23-51.
Malterud, K.E. & K.M. Rydland (2000). Inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase from orange peel. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48(11), 5576-5580.
Mannan, M.M., M. Maridass & B. Victor (2008). A review on the potential uses of ferns. Ethnobot. Leaflets, 12(1), 281-285.
Medzhitov, R. (2010). Inflammation 2010: New adventures of an old flame. Cell, 140(6), 771-776.
Mcchesney, J.D., S.K. Venkataraman & J.T. Henri (2007). Plant natural products: Back to the future or into extinction? Phytochemistry, 68(14), 2015-2022.
Mollik, M.A.H. (2010). The effect of medicinal plants on sexually transmitted infections and cancer: Results from a cross-sectional study in Habiganj district of Bangladesh. Eur. J. Integr. Med., 4(2), 220-221.
Nair, A.G., G.S. Nikhila, G. Sangeetha & T.S. Swapna (2015). In vitro hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Diplazium esculentum (Retz) Sw.–A wild fern from Western Ghats. Int. J. Inst. Pharm. Life Sci. 5(2): 341-348.
Nandwanim, D., J.A. Calvo, J. Tenorio, F. Calvo & L. Manglona (2008). Medicinal plants and traditional knowledge in the Northern Mariana Islands. J. Appl. Biosci., 8(2), 323-330.
Nejad, B.S. & S.S. Deokule (2009). Anti-dermatophytic activity of Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. Jundishapur. J. Microbiol., 2(1), 25-30.
Nostro, A., M.P. Germano, V. D’angelo, A. Marino & M.A. Cannatelli (2000). Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 30(5), 379-384.
Padhy, R. & S.K. Dash (2015). Medico-folklore study on some Pteridophytes from Kerandimal Hills of South Odisha with emphasis on Drynaria quercifolia (Linn.) J. Smith. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci., 6(4), 2029-2035.
Patrignani, P., S. Tacconelli, M.G. Sciulli & M.L. Capone (2005). New insights into COX-2 biology and inhibition. Brain Res. Rev., 48(2), 352-359.
Pradhan, S. & J.P. Tamang. 2015. Ethnobiology of wild leafy vegetables of Sikkim. Indian J. of Tradit. Know., 14 (2), 290-297.
Prasanna, G., R. Devi & G. Ishwarya (2019). In vitro evaluation of antidiabetic and cytotoxicity potentials of the rhizome extract of Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 12(11), 72-76.
Rahmat, A., V. Kumar, L.M. Fong, S. Endrini & H.A. Sani (2003). Determination of total antioxidant activity in three types of local vegetables shoots and the cytotoxic effect of their ethanolic extracts against different cancer cell lines. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr.,12(3), 292-295.
Rajesh, K.D., N.V. Rajesh, S. Vasantha, S. Jeeva & D. Rajasekaran (2014). Anthelmintic efficacy of selected ferns in sheeps (Ovis aries.Linn). Int. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine, 1(1), 1-14.
Rahmatullah, M., N.K. Azam, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, F. Islam, A. Rahman, J. Sharmin & S. Aziz (2012). Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 9(3), 380-385.
Ramesh, N., M.B. Viswanathan, A. Saraswathy, K. Balakrishna, P. Brindha & P. Lakshmanaperumalsamy (2001). Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on Drynaria quercifolia. Fitoterapia, 72(8), 934-936.
Reich, E. & A. Schibli (2007). High-performance thin-layer chromatography for the analysis of medicinal plants. Thieme, Stuttgart.
Roosita, K., C.M. Kusharto, M. Sekiyama, Y. Fachrurozi & R. Ohtsuka (2008). Medicinal plants used by the villagers of a Sundanese community in West Java, Indonesia. J. Ethnopharmacol.,115(1), 72-81.
Sadeghian, H. & A. Jabbari (2015). 15-Lipoxygenase inhibitors: a patent review. Expert Opin. Ther. Pat., 26(1), 65-88.
Sen, A. & P.D. GHOSH (2011). A note on the ethnobotanical studies of some pteridophytes in Assam. Indian J. Tradit. Know., 10 (2), 292-295.
Shil, S. & M.D. Choudhury (2009). Ethnomedicinal importance of pteridophytes used by Reang tribe of Tripura, North East India. Ethnobot. Leaflets, 13, 643-644.
Tan, J.B.L. & Y.Y. LIM (2015). Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activity of the fertile fronds and rhizomes of three different Drynaria species. BMC Research Notes, 8(1), 468.
Tongco, J.V.V., R.A.P. Villaber, R.M. Aguda & R.A. Razal (2014). Nutritional and phytochemical screening, and total phenolic and flavonoid content of Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. from Philippines. J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 6(8), 238-242.
Tran, T.V.A., C. Malainer, S. Schwaiger, T. Hung, A.G. Atanasov, E.H. Heiss, V.M. Dirsch & H. Stuppner (2015). Screening of Vietnamese medicinal plants for NF-κB signaling inhibitors: Assessing the activity of flavonoids from the stem bark of Oroxylum indicum. J. Ethnopharmacol.,159, 36-42.
Vane, J.R. (1996). Introduction: Mechanism of action of NSAIDs. Rheumatology, 35, 1-3.
Wangensteen, H., A.B. Samuelsen & K.E. Malterud (2004). Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander. Food Chem., 88(2), 293-297.
Wong, R.S. (2019). Role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in cancer prevention and cancer promotion. Adv. Pharmacol.Sci.,1-10.
Wongrakpanich, S., A. Wongrakpanich, K. Melhado & J. Rangaswami (2018). A comprehensive review of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in the elderly. Aging Dis. 9(1), 143-150.
Zannah, F., M. Amin, H. Suwono & B. Lukiati (2017). Phytochemical screening of Diplazium esculentum as medicinal plant from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1844, No. 1, p. 050001). AIP Publishing LLC.