Author Guidelines

Thank you for choosing to submit your paper to us. These instructions will ensure we have everything required so your paper can move through peer review, production and publication smoothly.

Submission of an article implies that the work described: has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors. If accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

  • E-mail address
  • Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:


  • Include keywords
  • All figures (include relevant captions)
  • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
  • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
  • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print

Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)

Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations

  • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
  • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare

For transparency, we require corresponding authors to provide co-author contributions to the manuscript. The roles of authors may include: Conceptualization, Data collection; Data analysis; Writing of original draft; Revision of the manuscript; Review and editing; Final approval of the version to be published; Supervision; Funding acquisition. Note that not all roles may apply to every manuscript, and authors may have contributed through multiple roles.

Papers may be submitted in Word format. Please do not submit PDF versions of manuscript files. Figures should be saved separately from the text. To assist you in preparing your paper, we provide a formatting template.  Word templates are available for this journal.