State and Economy during Modern Indonesia’s Change of Regime

Jan Thomas Lindblad(1*)

(*) Corresponding Author


This article serves as a general introduction to the proceedings of an international conference on ‘State and Economy in Modern Indonesia’s Change of Regimes’, held in Leiden in 2011. The article offers a synthesis of fndings in a recent research effort concerning the relationship between state and economy at the time of Indonesia’s decolonization. Findings are embedded in a wider historiographical framework and draw specifcally on the individual contributions presented at the Leiden conference. Four categories of analysis are applied concerning respectively political ecoomy, economic policy, recurrent reform and impact. The synthesis highlights the great variety of interpretations of the profund changes taking place in Indonesia at thetime of decolonization and shortly afterwards. It also demonstrates the utility of international comparison. Specifc case studies are offered concerning food policies and social medicine in Indonesia. A new vision on the transitional period known as Guided Democracy and Guided Economy is offered.


Regime change, decolonization, colonial history, political economy, Guided Democracy

Full Text:



Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson & J.A. Robinson. ‘The Colonial Origins of Comparative Develolpment. An Empirical Investigation’, American Economic Review, Vol. 91, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1369-1401.

Boeke, J.H., Economics and Economic Policy of Dual Societies as Exemplifed by Indonesia. New York: Institute of Pacifc relations, 1953.

Booth, Anne. ‘The Evolution of Fiscal Policy and the Role of Government in the Colonial Economy’, in: Anne Booth, William J. O’Malley and Anna Weidemann (eds), Indonesian Economic History in the Dutch Colonial Era. New Haven, CT: Yale Unniversity Press, 1990,

pp. 210-43.

Booth, Anne, The Indonesian Economy in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. A History of Missed Opportunities. London: Macmillan, 1998.

Booth, Anne, 2007. Colonial Legacies: Economic and Social Development in East and Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.

Booth, Anne. 2010. ‘Government and Welfare in the New Republic. Indonesia in the 1950s’, Itinerario. European Journal of Overseas History, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2010), pp. 57-76.

Booth, Anne. ‘Colonial Revenue Policies and the Impact of the Transition to Independence in Southeast Asia’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Landen Volkenkunde. Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia and Oceania, forthcoming [2013].

Cribb, Robert. ‘Development Policy in the early Twentieth Century’, in: Jan-Paul Dirkse, Frans Hüsken & Mario Rutten (eds), Development and Social Welfare. Indonesia’s Experiences under the New Order. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1993, pp. 225-46.

Cribb, Robert. ‘Introduction: The Late Colonial State in Indonesia’, in: Robert Cribb (ed.), The Late Colonial State in Indonesia. Political and Economic Foundations of the Netherlands Indies, 1880-1942. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1994, pp. 1-9.

Darwin, John. ‘What was the Late Colonial State?’, Itinerario. European Journal of Overseas History, Vol. 23, No. 3-4 (1999), pp.


Dick, Howard, Vincent J.H. Houben, J. Thomas Lindblad & Thee Kian Wie. The Emergence of a National Economy. An Economic History of Indonesia, 1800-2000. Crows West, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2002.

Doorn, J.A.A. van, De laatste eeuw van Indië. Ontwikkeling en ondergang van een koloniaal project. Amsterdam: Bakker, 1994.

Eng, Pierre van der. ‘Assessing Economic Growth and Standards of Living in Asia’, in: A.J.H. Latham & H. Kawakatsu (eds), The Evolving

Structure of the East Asian Economic System since 1700. A Comparative Analysis. Milan: Universitá Bocconi, 1994, pp. 95-108.

Eng, Pierre van der, Agricultural Growth in Indonesia since 1880. Productivity Change and the Impact of Government Policy. PhD dissertation, University of Groningen, 1993.

Eng, Pierre van der. ‘Indonesia’s Growth Performance in the Twentieth Century’, in: Angus Maddison, D.S. Prasada Rao & William

F. Shepherd (eds), The Asian Economics in the Twentieth Century. Cheltenham/ Northampton, MA: Elgar, 2002, pp. 143-79.

Eng, Pierre van der. ‘The Sources of Long-term Economic Growth in Indonesia’, Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2010, pp.


Feith, Herbert. The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1962.

Frederick, William H. ‘Brothers of a Kind: Comparative Perspectives on the Indonesian and Vietnamese Revolutions’, in: Taufk Abdullah (ed.), The Heartbeat of Indonesian Revolution, 1997. Jakarta: Gramedia, pp.


Haggard, Stephen. The Political Economy of the Asian Financial Crisis. Washington, DC: Institute of International Economics, 2000.

Higgins, Benjamin, Indonesia’s Economic Stabilization and Development. New York: Institute of Pacifc Relations, 1957.

Lindblad, J. Thomas, Foreign Investment in Southeast Asia in the Twentieth Century. London: Macmillan, 1998.

Lindblad, J. Thomas, Bridges to New Business. The Economic Decolonization of Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2008.

Lindblad, J. Thomas. ‘Economic Growth and Decolonisation in Indonesia’, Itinerario. International Journal on the History of European Expansion and Global Interaction, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2010, pp. 97-112.

Lindblad, J. Thomas. ‘The Economy’, in: William H. Frederick and Robert L. Worden (eds), Indonesia: A Country Study. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2011, pp. 163-223.

Marks, Daan. ‘The Lost Decades? Economic Disintegration in Indonesia’s Early Independence Period’, Itinerario. European Journal of Overseas History, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2010), pp. 77-95.

McLeod, Ross. ‘Institutionalized Public Sector Corruption. A Legacy of the Suharto Franchise’, in: Edward Aspinall & Gerry van Klinken (eds), The State and Illegality in Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2011, 45-64.

Meijer, Hans, Den Haag – Djakarta: De Nederlands-Indonesische betrekkingen, 1950-1962. Utrecht: Aula.

Prince, G.H.A. ‘Dutch Economic Policy in Indonesia, 1870-142’, in: Angus Maddison & Gé Prince (eds), Economic Growth in Indonesia, 1820-1940. Dordrecht: Foris, 1989, pp. 203-26.

Ricklefs, M.C., A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200. Basingstoke: Macmillan Palgrave, 2001. [First edition published in


Robison, Richard, Indonesia: The Rise of Capital. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1986.

Thee Kian Wie, Recollections: The Indonesian Economy, 1950s-1990s. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003.

Vickers, Adriaan, A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

White, Nicholas J. ‘The Settlement of Decolonization and Post-colonial Economic Development. Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia Compared’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia and Oceania, forthcoming [2013].

Widjojo Nitisastro, The Indonesian Development Experience. A Collection of Writings and Speeches of Widjojo Nitisastro. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011.

World Bank, The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Zanden, Jan Luiten van & Daan Marks, An Economic History of Indonesia, 1800-2010. London/New York: Routledge, 2012. [Translated as Ekonomi Indonesia 1800-2010. Antara Drama dan Keajaiban Pertumbuhan. Jakarta: Kompas, 2012].


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1762 | views : 4322


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Lembaran Sejarah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2620-5882(online) | © 2024 Lembaran Sejarah

View My Stats