Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) dengan Trichoderma sp.

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.9396

Albertus Sudirman(1*), Christanti Sumardiyono(2), Siti Muslimah Widyastuti(3)

(1) Politeknik Negeri Lampung
(2) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation). Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag). Faktor kedua adalah waktu pemberian dengan tiga aras (dua minggu sebelum, bersamaan, dan dua minggu setelah inokulasi dengan Foc). Tiap perlakuan terdiri atas 10 ulangan. Intensitas penyakit diamati dengan sistem scoring (1–4) terhadap kelayuan daun. Biakan Trichoderma sp. ditumbuhkan dalam medium campuran sekam dan bekatul (2:1, g/g). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma sp. bersifat antagonistik terhadap Foc in vitro dengan daya hambat terhadap perkembangan koloni Foc 86%. Mekanisme penghambatan berupa hiperparasitisme. Hifa Trichoderma sp. menempel, melilit pada hifa Foc sehingga terjadi lisis hifa. Lisis hifa Foc terjadi pada tempat persinggungan antara hifa Foc dan hifa Trichoderma sp. Hasil pengujian di rumah kaca menunjukkan bahwa penyakit layu Fusarium dapat dihambat dengan pemberian Trichoderma sp. dalam medium campuran dedak dan bekatul sebanyak 25 g pada per polibag yang dilakukan bersamaan dengan waktu inokulasi Foc.

 


Keywords


biological control; Trichoderma sp.; Fusarium wilt of banana; Foc; pengendalian hayati; penyakit layu pisang

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.9396

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