Perkembangan Populasi Wereng Hijau dan Predatornya pada Beberapa Varietas Padi

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.17259

Wasis Senoaji(1*), R. Heru Praptana(2)

(1) Loka Penelitian Penyakit Tungro, Jln. Bulo No.101, Lanrang, Sidenreng Rappang, Sulawesi Selatan 91651
(2) Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan, Jln. Merdeka No. 147, Bogor 16111
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The population of green leafhopper Nephotettix sp. from seedling until to the end of the vegetative phase needs to be controlled to avoid the incidence of tungro. Integrated pest management based on bioecological management of natural enemies has the potential to sustainable agroecosystems. The purpose of the study was to find out the population dynamics of green leafhopper and various species of predators on several rice varieties. Field study was conducted in a rainy season of 2013 at The Tungro Disease Research Station (Tundres), Lanrang, South Sulawesi. Observational methods were used to study development of the green leafhoppers population and their predators in five rice varieties: Inpari 4, Inpari 7, Inpari 9, IR 64, and TN1. The results showed that the population density of green leafhoppers increased during the vegetative stage and decreased in the generative stage. It was not affected by the resistance of varieties. Generally, the predators population density did not follow their prey. Shannon-Wienner (H’) diversity index of predators showed up to 0.91. It suggested that identifying predator functional traits improve opportunities of the practice of conservation biological control.

 

INTISARI

Populasi wereng hijau Nephotettix sp. sejak persemaian hingga akhir fase vegetatif perlu dipantau dan dikendalikan untuk menghindari dan menekan insidensi tungro. Pengendalian hama terpadu yang berbasis bioekologi dengan menekan penggunaan pestisida, kesesuaian varietas dan pengelolaan musuh alami mempunyai potensi dalam membangun agroekosistem yang berkelanjutan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pola perkembangan populasi wereng hijau dan berbagai jenis predatornya pada beberapa varietas padi sehingga menjadi informasi penting dalam penentuan jenis dan proporsi varietas, pemantauan kepadatan populasi wereng hijau dalam kaitannya dengan insidensi tungro. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Loka Penelitian Penyakit Tungro, Lanrang, Sulawesi Selatan pada musim hujan 2013, dengan mengunakan metode observasi untuk mengetahui keberadaan dan perkembangan populasi wereng hijau dan predatornya pada lima varietas padi yang berbeda umur (kegenjahan) dan ketahanannya terhadap wereng hijau, yaitu Inpari 4, Inpari 7, Inpari 9, IR 64, TN1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pola populasi wereng hijau meningkat selama fase vegetatif (tiga hingga enam MST) dan menurun pada fase generatif (tujuh hingga delapan MST). Tingkat kepadatan populasi wereng hijau tidak dipengaruhi oleh ketahanan varietas. Secara umum, pola fluktuasi kepadatan populasi predator tidak mengikuti pola fluktuasi kepadatan populasi wereng hijau di setiap varietas. Berdasarkan nilai indeks Shannon-wiener, keragaman predator berada diatas nilai indek 0,91 menunjukkan peluang konservasi musuh alami dalam pengendalian biologis dengan memfokuskan identifikasi tanggap fungsional predator terhadap hama sasaran.

 


Keywords


green leafhopper; populasi; population; predator; rice varieties; varietas padi; wereng hijau

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.17259

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