Pengaruh Perlakuan Uap Air Panas dengan Sistem Pemanasan Terbuka terhadap Kesehatan dan Viabilitas Benih Jagung

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11884

Singgih Kurniawan(1*), Ani Widiastuti(2), Y. M. S. Maryudani(3)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The existence of seed-borne fungi could degrade the seed quality in its viability and may cause disease after planting. The aim of this research was to know the hot vapor treatment effectiveness in controlling that fungal disease and its influence to the viability of corn seed. The treatment effectiveness was measured based on the reduction of the fungal growth and sporulation on Potato DextroseAgar (PDA), the fungal infection on seed, and not reduced the seed viability significantly after treatment. Hot vapor treatment was done in 50°C, 60°C, and 70°C temperature for 20 minutes and a control. The temperature treatments cover 5 minutes of antecedent treatment in the form of appliance warm-up until the target temperature obtained, 10 minutes in the treatment drum and 5 minutes for resting time while the faucet is being shut down but the exhaust fan remain to be opened. Result of the research show that in vitro test of hot water vapor on 60oC and 70oC killed Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium sp., and Penicillium sp. isolates. Both of the temperatures reduced the corn seed viability significantly. Infection of A. flavus still dominant in corn seed after treated on the three temperatures.The hot vapor treatment with 50oC is good for seed treatment of 408.9 g corn seed although the seed had been stored for about 9 months.

 

Adanya jamur terbawa benih dapat menurunkan viabilitas dan kemungkinan dapat menimbulkan penyakit setelah benih ditanam di lapangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keefektifan perlakuan uap air panas untuk mengendalikan jamur terbawa benih dan pengaruhnya terhadap viabilitas benih jagung. Keefektifan perlakuan diukur berdasarkan kekuatan mereduksi pertumbuhan koloni dan sporulasi jamur yang ditumbuhkan pada medium Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), tingkat infeksi jamur pada biji dan tidak menurunkan viabilitas biji. Perlakuan ini menggunakan suhu 50o C, 60o C, dan 70o C selama 20 menit serta tanpa perlakuan sebagai kontrol. Lama perlakuan meliputi 5 menit perlakuan pendahuluan berupa pemanasan awal sampai suhu yang diinginkan, 10 menit untuk pemanasan drum perlakuan, dan 5 menit waktu istirahat yaitu kran uap air dimatikan tetapi kipas exhaust tetap dihidupkan. Hasil penelitian in vitro menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan uap air panas bersuhu 60o C dan 70o C mematikan isolat Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium sp. dan Penicillium sp. Kedua suhu tersebut menurunkan viabilitas benih jagung secara nyata. Infeksi A. flavus masih dominan dalam benih jagung walaupun telah diperlakukan dengan ketiga macam suhu uap air panas. Perlakuan uap air panas bersuhu 50o C pada benih jagung sebanyak 408,9 g dapat dipilih sebagai perlakuan yang baik untuk benih jagung walaupun telah disimpan sekitar 9 bulan


Keywords


corn seed, hot vapor treatment, seed health, viability; : benih jagung, kesehatan benih, perlakuan uap air panas, viabilitas benih.

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References

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11884

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