Recovery of Microsclerotia of Verticilium dahliae from Soil as Subjected to Various Treatments

Loekas Soesanto(1*), A. J. Thermorshuizen(2)

(1) Faculty of Agriculture University of Jendral Soedirman
(2) Department of Biological Farming System University of Wageningen
(*) Corresponding Author


The influence of various conditions on the survival of microsclerotia of Verticilium dahliae Kleb. was studied using three sources of field-collected potato stems densely covered with naturally-formed microsclerotia. Microsclerotia were found to survive for up 2 years in potato stems not incorporated in soil. The effects of temperature, pF, including weekly variations in temperature and or pF, and various modes of incorporating potato stem tissue on the survival of microsclerotia for up to 1 year in a sandy unsterilised soil was also studied for different microsclerotia sources. Inoculum source had no signicant effect. Remarkably few microslcerotia were recovered one day after the start of experiments varying between 5.5 and 31%. Recovery remained at this level or even decreased for another month and for several treatments, also after 3 and 6 months. Only after 3 to 12 months, recovery increased to values up to 5 times higher than that of one day after start of the experiment, but recoveries did not exceed the number of microsclerotia initially incorporated into the soil. Changes in recovery may be due to variation in the level of soil mycostasis which is affected by rate of nutrient exudation from microsclerotia.


survival; microsclerotia; Verticillium dahliae

Full Text:



Ben-Yephet, Y. & Y. Pinkas. 1977. Germination of Individual Microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae. Phytoparasitica 5: 159─ 166.

Bollen, G.J., 0. Hoekstra, K. Scholte, T:W. Hofman, M.J. Celetti, & A. Schirring. 1989, Incidence of Soilborne Pathogens in Potato Related to the Frequency of Potato Growing on a Clay Loam, p. 203─ 222. In J. Vos, C.D. van Loon, and G.J. Bollen (eds.), Effects of Crop Rotation on Potato Production in the Temperate Zones. Kluwer Scientific Publishers, Dordrecht.

Bristow, P.R. & J.L. Lockwood. 1975. Soil Fungistasis: Role of Spore Exudates in the Inhibition of Nutrient-Independent Propagules. J. Gen. Microb. 90: 140─146.

Emmaty, D.A. & R.J. Green Jr. 1969. Fungistasis and the Behaviour of the Microsclerotia of Verticillium albo-atrum in Soil. Phytopathology 59: 1590─ 1595.

Evans, G., W.C. Snyder, & S. Wilhelm .1966. Inoculum Increase Verticillium Wilt Fungus in Cotton. Phytopathology 56: 590 ─594.

Green, Jr., RJ. & G.C. Papavizas. 1968. The Effect of Carbon Source, Carbon to Nitrogen Ratios, and Organic Amendments on Survival of Propagules of Verticillium albo-atrum in Soil. Phytopathology 58: 567─570.

Green, Jr., RJ. 1980. Soil Factors Affecting Survival of Microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae. Phytopathology 70: 353─355.

Harris, D.C., J.R. Yang, & M.S. Ridout. 1993. The Detection and Estimation of Verticillium dahliae in Naturally Infested Soil. Plant Pathology 42: 238 ─ 250.

Hawke, M.A. & G. Lazarovits. 1994. Production and Manipulation of Individual Microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae for Use in Studies of Survival. Phytopatholagy 84: 883─890.

Hsu, S.C. and J.L. Lockwood. 1973. Soil Fungistasis: Behavior of Nutrient-Independent Spores and Sclerotia in a Model System. Phytopathology 63: 334─337.

Huisman, O.C. & J.S. Gerik. 1989. Dynamics of Colonization of Plant Roots by Verticillium dahliae and Other Fungi, p. 1─17. In: Tjamos, E.C. and C.H. Beckman (eds.), Vascular Wilt Diseases of Plants. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Hyakumachi, M. & J.L. Lockwood. 1989. Relation of Carbon Loss from Sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii During Incubation in Soil to Decreased Germinability and Pathogenic Aggressiveness. Phytopathology 79: 1059─1063.

Lockwood, J.L. 1977. Fungistatis in Soils. Biol. Rev. 52: 1─43.

Lynch, J.M. & J.M. Whipps. 1990. Substrate Flow in the Rhizosphere. Plant and Soil 129: 1─10.

Malik, N.K. & J.M. Milton. 1980. Survival of Verticillium in Monocotyledonous Plants. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 75: 496 ─ 498.

Menzies, J.D. & G.E. Griebel. 1967. Survival and Saprophytic Growth of Verticillium dahliae in Uncropped Soil. Phytopathology 57: 703 ─709.

Pataky, J.K. & M.K. Beute. 1983. Effects of Inoculum Burial, Temperature, and Soil Moisture on Survival of Cylindrocladium crotalariae Microsclerotia in North Carolina. Plant Disease 67: 1379─1382.

Schnathorst, W.C. 1981. Life Cycle and Epidemiology of Verticillium, p. 81─111. In Mace, ME., A.A. Bell, and C.H. Beckman (eds.), Fungal Wilt Diseases of Plants. Academic Press, Inc., New York.

Slattery, R.J., 1981. Inoculum Potential of Verticillium-Infested Potato Cultivars. American Potato J. 58: 135─142.

Termorshuizen, A.J., J.R. Davis, G. Gort, D.C. Harris, O.C. Huisman, G. Lazarovits, T. Locke, J.M. Melero Vara, L. Mol, E.J. Paplomatas, H.W. Platt, M. Powelson, D.I. Rouse, R.C. Rowe, & L. Tsror. 1998. Interlaboratory Comparison of Methods to Quantify Microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae in Soil. Appl. Env. Microb. 64: 3846─3853.

Toyota, K. & M. Kimura. 1993. Colonisation of Chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. raphani by Soil Bacteria and their Effects on Germination. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25: 193─197.

Wheeler, T.A. & R. Rowe. 1995. Influence of Soil Characteristics and Assay Techniques on Quantification of Verticilliurn dahliae in Ohio Soils. Plant Disease 79: 29─34.

Wilhelm, S. 1951. Is Verticillium albo-atrum a Soil Invader or a Soil Inhabitant? Phytopathology 41: 944─945.

Wilhelm, S. 1955. Longevity of The Verticillium Wilt Fungus in the Laboratory and Field. Phytopathology 45: 180─ 181.

Winston, P.W. & D.H. Bates. 1960. Saturated Solutions for the Control of Humidity in Biological Research. Ecology 41: 232─237.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1162 | views : 334


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2002 Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ISSN 1410-1637 (print)ISSN 2548-4788 (online) is published by the Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, in collaboration with Indonesian Entomological Society (Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia, PEI) and Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia, PFI). The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.  

View website statistics