Pendekatan Positivistik dalam Studi Hukum Adat

https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.37512

Rikardo Simarmata(1*)

(1) Scopus ID : 57035777500, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract
Adat Positive Legal Science was initiated to simplify Western People (officer, legal enforcer, scholar) to understand adat or adat law. There are two important process to produce and to formulate substance of Adat Positive Legal Science. First, introduction of positivism legal approach creates perspective seeing adat law as jurisprudence because it has elements supporting adat law as system. This approach differenciates Adat Positive Legal Science from adat law study based on social approach. Adat law social approach does not imagine universal elements which represent reality of adat and adat law diversity because its own uniqueness. This different dissociate Adat Positive Legal Science from social studies as initial references. Second, introduction of positivism approach is action to apply western legal thoughts to explain adat law. The result is bias explanation regarding adat law. It is argued that positivism approach in Adat Positive Legal Science sets apart nature of adat law which following dynamics social relation. This paper doesn not only elaborate the birth of Adat Positive Legal Science history, but also how Adat Positive Legal Science does not able to response dynamic adat law by looking back to the existing concepts and definitions.

Intisari
Ilmu Hukum Adat Positif pada awalnya digagas untuk keperluan memudahkan Orang Barat (pejabat, penegak hukum, ilmuan) untuk memahami adat atau hukum adat. Ada dua hal penting dari proses melahirkan dan merumuskan muatan Ilmu Hukum Adat Positif ini. Pertama, introduksi pendekatan positivisme menghasilkan pandangan yang melihat hukum adat sebagai jurisprudence dan karena itu memiliki unsur-unsur yang menjadi penopang hukum adat sebagai sistem. Pendekatan ini mengakibatkan Ilmu Hukum Adat Positif menjadi berbeda dari studi-studi hukum adat yang menggunakan pendekatan sosial. Kajian sosial hukum adat tidak membayangkan ada unsur-unsur universal yang bisa merepresentasikan adat atau hukum adat, yang dalam kenyataanya beragam karena memiliki keunikan-keunikan. Perbedaan ini sekaligus menjauhkan Ilmu Hukum Adat Positif dari studi-studi sosial, yang dijadikannya sebagai rujukan awal. Kedua, introduksi pendekatan positivisme sekaligus merupakan tindakan menerapkan pemikiran-pemikiran Hukum Barat (western legal thoughts) dalam menggambarkan hukum adat. Hasilnya, sebagian gambaran mengenai hukum adat yang dihasilkan dari pendekatan ini, bersifat bias. Tulisan ini berargumen bahwa pendekatan posivistik dalam Ilmu Hukum Adat Positif telah membuat disiplin ini menjauh dari sifat alamiah hukum adat yaitu yang terus berkembang mengikuti proses dinamik relasi-relasi sosial. Tulisan ini, selain memaparkan sejarah kelahiran Ilmu Hukum Adat Positif, juga memperlihatkan bagaimana Ilmu Hukum Adat Positif tidak mampu merespon dinamika pada hukum adat dengan cara melihat ulang istilah dan konsep-konsep yang digunakan beserta pengertiannya.


Keywords


kajian hukum adat; positivisme hukum; hukum adat

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.37512

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