Pembaharuan Hukum Waris Adat dalam Putusan Pengadilan (Penghormatan Identitas Budaya Vs Perkembangan Zaman)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.37201

Victor Imanuel W. Nalle(1*)

(1) Universitas Katolik Darma Cendika
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract

Supreme Court decisions have established that daughters have the right to inherit their fathers’ property. It is contrary with principle of inheritance on adat law, especially in patrilineal communities. Therefore this article analysis legal reasoning in Supreme Court decisions within equality between men and women in inheritance cases and their implications to cultural identities. Analysis in this article uses case approach to Supreme Court decisions in 1974 to 2016. The case approach in this article found that Supreme Court decisions use the perspective of human rights to criticize inequality between men and women on inheritance law in adat law. However, Article 28I par. 3 the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia states that cultural identities and rights of traditional communities shall be respected in accordance with the “development of times and civilisations”. This facts show that the definition of "the development of times and civilisations" as the basis of reviewing adat law is important. Supreme Court has to formulates the definition of “the development of times and civilizations” in order to prevent disappearance of cultural identities.s and civilisations.

 

Intisari

Mahkamah Agung dalam beberapa putusannya telah menetapkan bahwa anak perempuan memiliki hak untuk mewarisi harta ayahnya. Putusan-putusan tersebut bertentangan dengan prinsip pewarisan dalam hukum adat, khususnya dalam masyarakat adat dengan sistem patrilineal. Oleh karena itu artikel ini menganalisis penalaran hukum dalam putusan Mahkamah Agung terkait dengan keseimbanganlaki-laki dan perempuan dalam sengketa waris adat dan implikasinya terhadap identitas budaya. Analisis artikel ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus putusan Mahkamah Agung dan Pengadilan Negeri dari tahun 1974 hingga 2016. Analisis dalam artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa putusan-putusan Mahkamah Agung tersebut menggunakan perspektif hak asasi manusia untuk mengkritik ketidakseimbangan laki-laki dan perempuan dalam hukum waris berdasarkan hukum adat. Namun Pasal 28 I ayat (3) Undang-Undang Dasar NRI Tahun 1945 menyatakan bahwa identitas budaya dan hak-hak masyarakat tradisional dihormati selaras dengan “perkembangan zaman dan peradaban”. Kondisi ini menunjukkan definisi “perkembangan zaman dan peradaban” sangat penting untuk dirumuskan sebelum mengevaluasi hukum adat. Kriteria yang jelas terhadap definisi “perkembangan zaman dan peradaban” perlu dibuat agar perubahan hukum waris adat tidak berimplikasi pada pudarnya identitas budaya.


Keywords


hukum adat; pewarisan; gender; perkembangan zaman dan peradaban

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References

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.37201

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