International Law Analysis of The Restrictions Imposed on Remote Sensing Satellite Through Shutter Control

https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.31151

Dyan Franciska Dumaris Sitanggang(1*)

(1) Universitas Katolik Parahyangan
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract

This paper addresses the issue concerning state’s control over the activities of remote sensing (RS) satellites that can surveil its territory, as well as other states territories, and also able to disseminate confidential information, which could jeopardize the state’s national security and foreign policy. The author proposes that Indonesia should assert its right to control the activities of RS satellites as other countries do through ‘shutter control’ regulations. The author also examines several approaches that could be used to determine the allowed RS satellite activities, as well as other countries practices that might help to formulate new norms concerning space-based activities.

Intisari

Tulisan ini membahas isu kendali negara atas aktivitas satelit penginderaan jarak jauh, berdasarkan masalah kemampuan satelit penginderaan jarak jauh untuk pengamatan atas wilayah nasional negara asalnya juga negara-negara lain, menyebarkan informasi yang bersifat rahasia yang berbahaya bagi keamanan nasional dan kebijakan internasional negara tersebut. Penulis menyarankan agar Indonesia menyuarakan hak mengendalikan aktivitas satelit penginderaan jarak jauh sebagaimana dilakukan negara-negara melalui regulasi ‘kendali bidik’. Tulisan ini pun menganalisa pendekatan yang bisa digunakan untuk menentukan aktivitas satelit penginderaan jarak jauh yang diperbolehkan dan praktek negara-negara dapat membantu pembentukan norma baru dalam aktivitas luar angkasa.



Keywords


satellite application; remote sensing; shutter control

Full Text:

PDF


References

A. Books Cheng, Bin, 2004, Studies in International Space Law, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Christol, Carl Q., 1991b Space Law: Past, Present, and Future, Kluwer Law and Taxation, Boston. Csabafi, Imre A., 1971, The Concept of State Jurisdiction in International Space Law: A Study in the Progressive Development of Space Law in the United Nations, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. Dunk, Frans von der, and Tronchetti, Fabio (eds.), 2015, Handbook of Space Law, Edward Elgar Publishing, Massachusetts. Harris, Elisa D. (ed.), 2016, Governance of Dual-Use Technologies: Theory and Practice, American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Cambridge. Harris, Ray (ed.), 2002, Earth Observation Data Policy and Europe, Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., Netherlands. Ito, Atsuyo, 2011, Legal Aspects of Satellite Remote Sensing, Brill Nijhoff, Boston. Lyall, Francis, and Larsen, Paul B., 2016, Space Law: A Treatise, Ashgate Publishing, Surrey. Oduntan, Gbenga, 2012, Sovereignty and Jurisdiction in the Airspace and Outer Space: Legal Criteria for Spatial Delimitation, Routledge, New York. Pelton, Joseph N., et al. (eds.), 2013, Handbook of Satellite Applications, Springer, New York. Sumardi, Juajir, 1996, Hukum Ruang Angkasa (Suatu Pengantar), PT Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta. B. Journals and Articles Committee on Global Change Research, National Research Council, Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade, National Academy Press Washington DC, 1999. Darmono, Bambang, “Konsep dan Sistem Keamanan Nasional Indonesia”, Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, vol. 15, 2010. De Beer, Aniel Caro, “The Refusal of Access to High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Reasons of National Security: A (New) Rule of Customary International Law?”, Thesis, University of Pretoria, 2015. Gillon, Thomas, “Regulating Remote Sensing Space Systems in Canada – New Legislation for a New Era”, Journal of Space Law, vol. 34, 2008. Harris, Ray, and Browning, Richard, “Data Policy Assessment for GMES: Final Reports”, EVK2-CT-2002-80012-DPAG., University of London, 2004. International Law Association, “Report on the Legal Aspects of the Privatization and Commercialization of Space Activities”, Space Law Committee, Berlin Conference, 2004. Menzel, W. Paul, “Remote Sensing Applications with Meteorological Satellites”, NOAA Satellite and Information Service, University of Wisconsin, Madison, available at <https://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/rss/benevento/source/AppMetSat06.pdf>. Prober, Raphael, “Shutter Control: Confronting Tomorrow's Technology with Yesterday's Regulations”, Journal of Law and Politics, vol. 19, 2003. Schmidt-Tedd, Bernhard, and Kroymann, Max, “Current Status and Recent Developments in German Remote Sensing Law”, Journal of Space Law, vol. 34, 2008. Sneiffer, Youssef, “The Implication of National Security Safeguards on the Commercialization of Remote Sensing Imagery”, Seattle University Law Review, vol. 19, 1996. Williams, S. M., “Reflections and Suggestions on Remote Sensing and International Law”, German Journal of Air and Space Law, vol. 50, 2001. Xie, Yichun, et al., “Remote Sensing Imagery in Vegetation Mapping: A Review”, Journal of Plant Ecology, vol. 1, 2008. C. International Legal Instruments Convention on Civil Aviation, opened for signature 7 December 1944, 15 UNTS 295 (entered into force 4 April 1947). Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, opened for signature 29 November 1971, 961 UNTS 187 (entered into force 1 September 1972). Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space, UN GA Res. 41/65, 3 December 1986, UN Doc. A/AC.105/572/Rev.1. Statute of the International Court of Justice, 18 April 1946, 33 UNTS 993. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, UN GA Res. 2222, 19 December 1966, UN Doc. A/RES/2222 (XXI). D. National Laws French Space Operations Act, 2008. French Decree on Remote Sensing, 2009. Indonesia Space Act, Law Number 21 Year 2013, SG.2013-133. Kyl-Bingaman Amendment to the 1997 National Defense Authorization Act, 15 USC 5621. Presidential Decision Directive 23, United States Policy on Foreign Access to Remote Sensing Capability, 1994. Remote Sensing Data Policy, ISRO: EOS: POLICY-01: 2001. Remote Sensing Space Systems Act, SC 2005. Remote Sensing Space Systems Regulations, SOR/2007-66. Satellite Data Security Act Federal Gazette BGBI.2007 I. No.58, 2007. The Land Remote Sensing Commercialization Act, Public Law 98-365, 98th Congress, HR 5155, 1984. E. Cases Continental Shelf (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya/Malta), Judgment, 1985 ICJ Rep 29. North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, 1969 ICJ Rep 3. Western Sahara, Advisory Opinion, 1975 ICJ Rep 12. F. Miscellanous CBC, “India wants Google Earth Maps Blurred”, 5 February 2007, available at <http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/india-wants-google-earth-maps-blurred-1.638156>. BBC News, “Google Earth Prompts Indian Fears”, 5 February 2007, available at <http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/technology/6331033.stm>. GISGeography, “100 Earth Shattering Remote Sensing Applications and Uses”, available at <http://gisgeography.com/100-earth-remote-sensing-applications-uses/>. GISGeography, “Passive vs Active Sensors in Remote Sensing”, available at <http://gisgeography.com/passive-active-sensors-remote-sensing/>. Government Regulation Draft on Remote Sensing of the Republic of Indonesia, available at <http://peraturan.go.id/penginderaan-jauh.html>. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “NASA, Japan Release Most Complete Topographic Map of Earth”, 29 June 2009, available at <https://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/aster-20090629.html>. Remote Sensing Technology and Data Center, available at <http://pustekdata.lapan.go.id>. Rikin, Ari Supriyanti, “Lapan Serahkan Data Penginderaan Jauh Resolusi Tinggi pada 11 Instansi”, 29 January 2015, available at <http://www.beritasatu.com/iptek/244745-lapan-serahkan-data-penginderaan-jauh-resolusi-tinggi-pada-11-instansi.html>. Satellite Imaging Corporation, “Satellite Image Gallery: High Resolution Satellite Image (0.31m-2m)”, available at <https://www.satimagingcorp.com/gallery/>.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.31151

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1383 | views : 1174

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Mimbar Hukum

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Mimbar Hukum Indexed by:

DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journal) Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) COREGoogle ScholarWorldCatLIVIVOCopac JISTHarvard LibraryElectronic Journals LibraryColumbia University LibrariesLeiden University LibrariesUniversity of Saskatchewan-CanadaGent University LibraryWestern Theological SeminaryUniversity of OxfordThe University of SheffieldThe University of Manchester Toronto Public LibraryEbsco  

Member of :

Crossref


MIMBAR HUKUM ISSN: 0852-100X(print), ISSN: 2443-0994(online)