Effects of Twin-Screw Extruders Condition to Physical Properties of Floating Fish Feed


Arif Rahman Hakim(1*), Wahyu Tri Handoyo(2), Toni Dwi Novianto(3), Andrianto Widi Prasetyo(4)

(1) Loka Riset Mekanisasi Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumberdaya Manusia, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, Bantul, D.I Yogyakarta
(2) Loka Riset Mekanisasi Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumberdaya Manusia, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, Bantul, D.I Yogyakarta
(3) Loka Riset Mekanisasi Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumberdaya Manusia, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, Bantul, D.I Yogyakarta
(4) Loka Riset Mekanisasi Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumberdaya Manusia, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, Bantul, D.I Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Process production of floating fish feed in a society constrained by processing technology. The objective of this study was to observe effect of  condition process of twin screw extruders to the physical and chemical properties of produced of floating fish feed. Ingredients used involve fish meal, soybean meal, corn meal, and tapioca flour. The ingredients are mixed with 15, 20 and 25% water added to the total weight. Extrusion process condition conducted by several treatments i.e screw speed (540, 540, 600, 660 rpm) and barrel temperatures (80, 90, 100, 110, 120℃). In order to study, expansion ratio, unit density, floatability and hardness of feed were observed as physical parameters while chemical properties include moisture and protein content. Experimental result showed that addition 25 % water to the formula gives a good performance of expansion ratio, unit density and floatability than 15% and 20% moisture content. Higher of screw speed produces feed with higher ratio expansion, lower unit density, and higher floatability. The optimum of screw speed is 600 rpm.  Meanwhile increasing of barrel temperature caused reduction of unit density, and escalation floatability of feed. Best barrel temperature to meet the physical properties is 120℃. The produced feed contain protein 32.38-41.95% and moisture content 4.37-5.70%.


Twin screw extruders; floating fish feed; physical properties

Full Text:



Ayadi, F.Y., K.A. Rosentrater, K. Muthukumarappan & M.L. Brown. 2011. Twin-screw extrusion processing of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-based yellow perch (Perca flavescens) feeds. Food Bioprocess Technol. DOI 10.1007/s11947-011-0535-5

Baller, M.A., P.D.G. Pacheco, F.M. Peres, M. Monti & A.C. Carciofi. 2018.The effects of in-barrel moisture on extrusion parameters, kibble macrostructure, starch gelatinization, and palatability of a cat food. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 246: 82–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.10.003

Chaiyakul, S., K. Jangchud, A. Jangchud, P. Wuttijumnong & R. Winger. 2009. Effect of extrusion conditions on physical and chemical properties of high protein glutinous rice-based snack. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 42: 781–787. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2008.09.011

Cheng, H & J.H. Hansen. 2016. Extrudate expansion model in a twin-screw extrusion cooking process considering melt rheological property. Food Bioprocess Technology. 9: 604-611. DOI 10.1007/s11947-015-1655-0

Cian, R.E., C. Bacchetta, J. Cazenave & S.R. Drago. 2017. Optimization of single screw extrusion process for producing fish feeds based on vegetable meals and evaluation of nutritional effects using a juvenile Piaractus mesopotamicus model. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 234: 54 – 64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.004.

Curiel, F.B., S.T.P. Ramirez, E. Ringø, A.E. Zepeda, E.G. Lozano, R.V. Duhalt, A.S Flores & M.T. Viana. 2018. Effects of extruded aquafeed on growth performance and gut microbiome of juvenile Totoaba macdonaldi. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 245: 91–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.09.002

De Cruz., C.R., M.S. Kamarudin, C.R. Saad & E. Ramezani-Fard. 2015. Effects of extruder die temperature on the physical propertiesof extruded fish pellets containing taro and broken rice starch. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 199: 137–145 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.11.010.

Decker, E.A., D.J. Rose & D. Stewart. 2014. Processing of oats and the impact of processing operations on nutrition and health benefits. British Journal of Nutrition. 112: 58–64.

Draganovic, V., A.J.V. der Gootb, R. Boomb & J. Jonkersa. 2011. Assessment of the effects of fish meal, wheat gluten, soy protein concentrate and feed moisture on extruder system parameters and the technical quality of fish feed. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 165: 238–250. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.03.004

Gonzales, R.J., E.P. Cavada, J.V. Pena, R.L. Torres, D.M. De Greef & S.R. Drago. 2013. Extrusion conditions and amylose content affect physicochemical properties of extrudates obtained from brown rice grains. Journal of Food Science. 246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/584148

Harper, J.M. 1979. Food extrusion. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Science Nutrition. (11): 155–215.

Kamarudin, M.S., C.R. De Cruz, C.R. Saad, N. Romano & E. Ramezani-Fard. 2018. Effects of extruder die head temperature and pre-gelatinized taro and broken rice flour level on physical properties of floating fish pellets. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 236: 122–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.007.

Kurniawan, A & R.A. Lestariadi. 2017. Induction of fish pellet making machine to improve feed community program in catfish farmers in mojokerto regency. J. Innov Appl Technol. 3: 433-438. doi: 10.21776/ub.jiat.2017.003.01.16

LRMPHP. 2018. Penelitian Mesin Pembuat Pakan Ikan Skala UKM. Loka Riset Mekanisasi Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan. Laporan Teknis. Badan Riset dan Sumberdaya Manusia Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan.

Onwulata, C.I., P.W. Smith, R.P. Konstance & V.H. Holsinger. 2001. Incorporation of whey products in extruded corn, potato or race snacks. Food Res. Int. (34):679–687. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00088-6.

Philipp, C., I. Oey, P. Silcock, S.M. Beck & R. Buckow. 2017. Impact of protein content on physical and microstructural properties of extruded rice starch-pea protein snacks. Journal of Food Engineering. 212: 165-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.05.024

Purwasasmita, B.S & P.H. Roland. 2008. Sintesa, karakterisasi dan fabrikasi material berpori untuk aplikasi pelet apung (floating feed). Jurnal Bionatura. 10 (1): 13-28

Rasidi, R & J. Haryadi. 2016. Evaluasi kebijakan pengembangan pakan mandiri. In prosiding forum inovasi teknologi akuakultur. 1: 689-702

Riaz, M.N., M. Asif & R. Ali. 2009. Stability of vitamins during extrusion. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 49: 361–368.

Rosentrater, K.A., K. Muthukumarappan & S. Kannadhason. 2009. Effects of ingredients and extrusion parameters on aquafeeds containing DDGS and potato starch. Journal of Aquaculture Feed Science and Nutrition. 1 (1): 22-38

Samuelsen, T.A., A. Oterhals & K. Kousoulaki. 2018. High lipid microalgae (Schizochytrium sp.) inclusion as a sustainable source of n-3 long-chain PUFA in fish feed-Effects on the extrusion process and physical pellet quality. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 236: 14–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.020

Senanayake, S.A.M.A.N.S & B. Clarke. 1999. A simplified twin screw co-rotating food extruder: design, fabrication and testing. Journal of Food Engineering. 40: 129-137

Tyapkova, O., R. Osen, M. Wagenstaller, B. Baier, F. Specht & C. Zacherl. 2016. Replacing fishmeal with oilseed cakes in fish feed a study on the influence of processing parameters on the extrusion behavior and quality properties of the feed pellets. Journal of Food Engineering. 191: 28-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2016.07.006

Zaman, A.B., S. Catur, E. Yunita & I. Suja'i. 2018. Karakteristik fisik pakan ikan apung non-ekstrusi yang dibuat melalui fermentasi Rhizopus oryzae. Jurnal Bioteknologi dan Biosains Indonesia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jfs.44821

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3023 | views : 5231


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada (print ISSN 0853-6384; online ISSN 2502-5066) is published by Department of Fisheries, Universitas Gadjah Mada in collaboration with Semnaskan UGM (Seminar Nasional Tahunan Hasil Perikanan dan Kelautan) and ISMFR (International Symposium on Marine and Fisheries Research).


View My Stats