Ijarotimi Oluwole Steve(1*)

(1) Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: Nutrition transition, that is, increase in consumption of high energy-dense foods, with low consumption of fruits and vegetables, has been implicated as the major factors responsible for the increase in prevalence of diet-related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Evidence has shown that consumption of plant-based foods prevents the risk of these chronic diseases, hence, the present study formulated and evaluated nutrient compositions and antidiabetic potentials of multi-plant based functional foods from locally available food materials.

Methods: Food materials (popcorn, moringa leaves, wonderful kola and defatted soybean) were obtained from reputable farms and markets in Akure, Nigeria. The food materials were processed as raw, blanched and fermented flour samples, and blended to obtain nine samples, i.e., R1, B1 and F1 (popcorn 60%, soybean 10%, moringa 20% and groundnut oil 10%), R2, B2 and F2 (popcorn 60%, soybean 10%, wonderful kola 20% and groundnut oil 10%) and R3, B3 and F3 (popcorn 60%, soybean 10%, moringa 10%, wonderful kola 10% and groundnut oil 10%) using  Nutri-Survey software. Proximate compositions of the blended samples were determined using AOAC methods, and glyceamic index and anti-diabetic potentials were determined using rat models.

Results: Proximate compositions (g/100g) of the formulated multi-plant based functional foods were as follows: moisture contents ranged from 6.29 in F3 to 8.27 in R3, crude fiber contents from 2.79 in F2 to 4.68 in B3 and crude protein contents from 23.22 in B1 to 30.39 in F3, while carbohydrate content of the formulations ranged from 52.10 in F3 sample to 56.94 in B2 sample, while energy values were between 421.1 in R1 and 433.7 kcal in B1. Glycaemic index (GI) of the formulated functional foods ranged from 5.8% in R3 to 28.9% in R1 sample, and were significantly (<0.05) lower than in glucose (a reference sample). The glycaemic load (GL) of R4 sample had the lowest value (3.3), while F4 sample had the highest value (15.1). The percentage blood glucose reduction of diabetic-induced rats fed with R1samples (63.8%) had the highest values; while those rats fed with B2 sample (24.1%) had the lowest blood glucose reduction. Statistically, the percentage blood glucose reduction of the formulated functional foods, particularly R1 and F1, were comparable to metformin (a synthetic anti-diabetic drug) in terms of antidiabetic activities.  

Conclusion: The study reported on the nutritional profile of multi-plant based functional foods from popcorn, soybean, wonderful kola and moringa leaves. Findings showed that these functional foods contain appreciable amount of protein, fiber, carbohydrate content within the recommended value for diabetic patients, low glycaemic index and glycaemic load properties and with antidiabetic activities. Hence, the formulated functional foods may be suitable for individuals at risk of diabetes or diabetic patients.

Full Text:



Adams, M. R.: Topical aspects of fermented foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 8, 1990, pp. 140-144.

Adeoti, O.A., Elutilo, O.O., Babalola, J.O., Jimoh, K.O, Azeez, L.A & Rafiu, K.A. 2013. Proximate, Mineral, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Maize Tuwo-Cirina Forda Flour Blends. Greener Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 3 (4), pp. 165-171.

Alozie Y. E., Iyam M. A., Lawal O., Udofia U. and Ani I. F. 2009. Utilization of Bambara ground flour blends in bread production. In Journal of Food Technology, 7(4):111-114.

Al-Shamaony, L., Al-Khazraji, S.M. and Twaiji, H.A. (1994).Hypoglycemic effect of Artemisia herba Alba II.Effect of a valuable extract on some blood parameters in diabetic animals.J Ethnopharmacol.43: 167-171.

Anon, 2006. Glycemic Index.

Astrup, A., Dyerberg, J., Selleck, M. & Stender, S. 2008. Nutrition transition and its relationship to the development of obesity and related chronic diseases. Obes. Rev. 9(Suppl. 1): 48–52.

Azokpota P, Hounhouigan D.J.& Nago M.C. 2006. Microbiological and chemical changes during the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) to produce afitin, iru and sonru, three traditional condiments produced in Benin. International Journal of Food Microbiology 107:304 – 309

Bjorck, I.M.E., Liljeberg H.G.M. & Ostman E.M. 2000. Low glycemic-index foods. Br. J. Nutr., 83: 149-155.

Bornet F.R., Jardy-Gennetier A.E. & Jacquet N. 2007. Glycaemic response to foods: impact on satiety and long-term weight regulation. Appetite; 49: 535-53.

Brand-Miller J.C. 2004. Postprandial glycemia, glycemic index, and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Am J ClinNutr.,80:243– 4.

Brand-Miller, J., Hayne S., Petocz P.& Colagiuri S. 2003a. Low-glycemic controlled trials. Diabetes Care, 26: 2261-2267.

Brand-Miller, J., Wolever T.M.S., Foster-Powell K. & Colagiuri S. 2003b. The New Glucose Revolution: The Authoritative Guide to the Glycemic Index. Marlowe and Company, New York.

Desoky K. & Youssef SA. 1997. Hypoglycemic effect of Sterculia rupestris and a comparable study of its flavonoids with Sterculia diverstifolia. Bull Fac Pharm Cairo Univ. 35:257–261.

Dieye A.M, Sarr A, Diop S.N., Ndiaye M., Sy G.Y., Diarra M., Rajraji Gaffary I., Ndiaye Sy A. & Faye B. 2008. Medicinal plants and the treatment of diabetes in Senegal: survey with patients. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology 22, 211–216.

Du, H.; D. L van der A, M. M. E van Bakel; C. J. H van der Kallen; E. E Blaak; M. M. J van Greevenbroek, E. H. J. M Jansen; G. Nijpels; C. D. A. Stehouwer; J. M. Dekker and E. J. M Feskens. (2008). Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population. Am. J. of Clin. Nutr. 87: 655-661.

Espin, J.C., Garcia-Conesa, M.T. & Tomas-Barberan, F.A. 2007. Nutraceuticals: facts and fiction. Phytochemistry. 68(22-24): pp.(2986-3008), 0031-9422.

Ezeigbo I.I. 2011. The Antidiabetic Potentials of the Methanolic Seed Extract of Buchhlozia Coriacea. Ann Med Health Sci Res July-Dec., 1(2) 159- 164

FAO/UN, 1998. Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition Paper no 66. FAO, Rome.

FAO/WHO (1997). Food and Agriculture Organization. Carbohydrate in human nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper – 66. Report of a joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Rome 14-18 April, 1997.

Fasasi, O.S., Adeyemi, I.A. & Fagbenro, O.A. (2005) Proximate composition and multi-enzyme in vitro protein digestibility of maize-tilapia flour blends. Journal of Food Technology 3(3): 342-345.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (1998) Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper no. 66. Rome: FAO.

Ford, E.S. & Liu S. 2001. Glycemic index and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among US adults. Arch. Intern. Med., 161: 572-576.

Franz M.J., Bantle J.P., Beebe C.A., Brunzell J.D., Chiasson J.L., Garg A, Holzmeister L.A., Hoogwerf B., Mayer-Davis E., Mooradian A.D., Purnell J.Q., Wheeler M. 2002. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care. 25:148–198.

Gibaldi, M. & D. Perrier, 1982. Pharmacokinetics. 2nd Rev. Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Iombor T.T., Umoh E.J. & Olakumi E. 2009. Proximate Composition and Organoleptic Properties of Complementary Food Formulated from Millet (Pennisetumpsychostachynum), Soybeans (Glycine max) and Crayfish (Euastacusspp). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (10): 1676-1679.

Ishida H., Suzunoh S., Sugiyana N., Innami S., Todoro T. & Mackawa A. 2000. Nutritional evaluation of chemical components of leaves, stalks and stem of sweet potatoes (Ipomea botatus). Food chem. 68:359 – 367

Jenkins D.J., Kendall C.W., Augustin L.S., Franceschi S., Hamidi M., Marchie A., Jenkins A.L., Axelsen M. 2002. Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr; 76: 266S-73S.

Jenkins D.J, Kendall C.W., Faulkner D.A., Nguyen T., Kemp T., Marchie A., Wong J.M., de Souza R., Emam A., Vidgen E., Trautwein E.A., Lapsley K.G., Holmes C., Josse R.G., Leiter L.A., Connelly P.W., Singer W. 2006. Assessment of the longer-term effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr.,83: 582-591.

Jenkins D.J.A., Wolever T.M.S., Taylor R.H., Burker H.M., Fielden H., Baldwin J.M., Bowling A.C., Newman H.C., Jenkins A.L. & Goff D.V., 1981. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 34: 362-366.

Jenkins, D. J. A.; T. M. S. Wolever and G. C. Buckley (1988). Low glycemic index starchy foods in the diabetic diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 48: 48-54.

Jood S., Khetarpaul N. & Goyal R. 2012. Effect of Germination and Probiotic Fermentation on pH, Titratable Acidity, Dietary Fibre, β-Glucan and Vitamin Content of Sorghum Based Food Mixtures. J Nutr Food Sci 2:164, 1-4, doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000164

Kar, A.; Choudhary, B. K. & Bandyopadhyay, N. G. 2003, Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 84, 105-8.

Krauss R.M, Eckel R.H., Howard B., Appel L.J., Daniels S.R., Deckelbaum R.J., Erdman J.W.J., Kris-Etherton P., Goldberg I.J., Kotchen T.A., Lichtenstein A.H., Mitch W.E., Mullis R., Robinson K., Wylie-Rosett J., St Jeor S., Suttie J., Tribble D.L., Bazzarre T.L. AHA Dietary Guidelines: revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation.102:2284–2299.

Liljeberg HGM, A’kerberg AKE & Bjorck IME. 1999. Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 69: 64755.

Liljeberg, H & Bjorck I. (1998). Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. European J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 368-371.

Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Hennekens CH, Manson JE. 2000. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr.,71:1455–1461.

Liu, S. & Manson J.E. 2001. Dietary carbohydrates, physical activity, obesity and the metabolic syndrome as predictors of coronary heart disease. Curr. Opin. Lipidol., 12: 395-404.

Ludwig D. 2002. The glycemic index. Physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 287: 2414-2423.

Ludwig D.S. 2000. Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J Nutr 130:280S–283S.

Ma Y, Li Y, Chiriboga DE, Olendzki BC, Hebert JR, Li W, Leung K, Hafner AR, Ockene IS. 2006. Association between carbohydrate Intake and serum lipids. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 25 (2): 155-163.

Meiton DA (2006). Reversal of type -1 diabetes in mice. The New England Journal of Medicine 355: 89-90.

Mendosa, D., 2000. The Glycemic Index. http.//, 5/31/2006s.

Ndong M, Uehara M, Katsumata S, et al. 2007b. Preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam) on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes in iron deficient rats. Biosci Biotechnol. Biochem 71: 1826–1833.

Nout, M. J. R. - Ngoddy, P. O.: Technological aspects of preparing affordable fermented complementary foods. Food Control, 8, 1997, pp. 279-287

Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No. 894. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2000.

Ochanda S. O., Onyango C. A., Mwasaru A. M., Ochieng J. K. and Mathooko F. M. 2010. Effects of malting and fermentation treatments on group B-vitamins of red sorghum, white sorghum and pearl millets in Kenya. Journal of Applied Biosciences 34: 2128 – 2134.

Okoye, J.I. and 2Mazi, E.A. Development and Quality evaluation of Soy-fortified Custard. ABSU Journal of Environment, Science and Technology Volume, 1; 99-104, 2011

Olitino HM, Onimawo IA and Egbekun MK (2007). Effect of germination on the chemical compositions, biochemical constituents and antinutritional factors of soybean (Glycine max) seeds. J. Sci. of Food Agriculture. 73: 1-9.

Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, Hu ZX, Lin J, Xiao JZ, Cao HB, Liu PA, Jiang XG, Jiang YY, Wang JP, Zheng H, Zhang H, Bennett PH, Howard BV. (1997) Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care, 20, 537–544.

Popkin BM. The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. Journal of Nutrition 2001; 131(3): 871S–3S.

Popkin, B.M. 2004. The nutrition transition: an overview of world patterns of change. Nutr. Rev. 62(7 Pt 2): S140–S143. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2004.tb00084.x. PMID:15387480.

Popkin, B.M. 2006. Global nutrition dynamics: the world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with non-communicable diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.84 (2): 289–298. PMID:16895874.

Popkin, B.M. 2009. Global changes in diet and activity patterns as drivers of the nutrition transition. Nestle Nutr. Workshop Ser. Pediatr.Program.63: 1–10; discussion 10–14, 259–268. PMID: 16895874.

Poskitt, E.M. 2009. Countries in transition: underweight to obesity non-stop? Ann. Trop. Paediatr. 29(1): 1–11. doi:10.1179/146532809X401971. PMID:19222928.

Salmeron, J., E.B. Rimm, G.A. Colditz, D. Spiegelman, D.J. Jenkins, M.J. Stampfer, A.L. Wing and W.C. Willett, 1997. Dietary fiber, glycemic load and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care, 20: 545-550.

Salmeron, J., J.E. Manson, M.J. Stampfer, G.A. Colditz, A.L. Wing and W.C. Willett, 1997. Dietary fiber, glycemic load and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA., 277: 472-477.

Scheen, A.J., Clinical pharmacokinetics of metformin. ClinPharmacokinet, 30:359–371, 1996.

Sefa-Dedeh, S., Y. Kluvitse and E.O. Afoakwa, 2001. Influence of fermentation and cowpea steaming on some quality characteristics of maize-cowpea blends. Afr. J. Sci., Technol., 2(2): 71-80.

Shaw Jonathan E and Chisholm Donald J. Epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome Med J Aust 2003; 179 (7): 379-383.

Simin Liu, Walter C Willett, Meir J Stampfer, Frank B Hu, Mary Franz, Laura Sampson, Charles H Hennekens & JoAnn E Manson. 2000. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J ClinNutr., 71:1455– 61.

Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, Salminen V, Uusitupa M; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. 2001. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344: 1343-1350.

Vorster, H.H., Bourne, L.T., Venter, C.S., and Oosthuizen, W. 1999. Contribution of nutrition to the health transition in developing countries: a framework for research and intervention. Nutr. Rev. 57(11): 341–349. PMID:10628185.

Wang J & Daun K.J. 2000. Effect of variety and crude protein content on nutrients and antinutrients in lentils (Lens culinaris). J. Food Chem. 95: 493-502.

WHO/FAO. 2003. Diet, Nutrition and the prevention of Chronic Disease. A report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation, Geneva, 28January – 1 February 2002. WHO Technical Report Series 916 WHO, Geneva.

Wolever TMS, Katzman-Relle L, Jenkins AL, Vuksan V, Josse RG & Jenkins DJA (1994) Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes. Nutr Res 14,651–669.

Wolever, T. M. S. & D. J. A. Jenkins (1986). The use of the glycemic index in predicting the blood glucose response to mixed meals. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 43:167-172.

Wolever, T. M. S.; Jenkins D. J. A.; Jenkins A. L. & Josse R. G. 1991. The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 54:846-854.

Wolever, T.M.S., 1993. Glycemic Tolerance and the Glycaemic Index, In: Macrea, R., Robinson, R.K. and Sadler, M.J. (Eds), Encyclopeadia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition. Academic Press, London, pp: 2214-2220.

Zhang R, Zhou J, Jia Z, Zhang Y, Gu G. 2004. Hypoglycemic effect of Rehmanniaglutinosa oligosaccharide in hyperglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its mechanism. J Ethnopharmacol.,90:39–43.

Zlatica Kohajdová & Jolana Karovičová. Fermentation of cereals for specific purpose Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Vol. 46, 2007, No. 2, pp. 51-57


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 711 | views : 2188


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences (ISSN: 2339-0948) -  Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.