Hubungan timbal dan krom pada pemakaian pewarna batik dengan kadar hemoglobin dan packed cell volume pada pengrajin batik di Kecamatan Lendah Kulon Progo

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.39156

Pramudji Hastuti(1*), Sunarti Sunarti(2), Prasetyastuti Prasetyastuti(3), Ngadikun Ngadikun(4), Tasmini Tasmini(5), Dianandha Septiana Rubi(6), Sri Sutarni(7), Indrasari Kusuma Harahap(8), Kusumo Dananjoyo(9), Suhartini Suhartini(10), Ida Bagus Gd. Surya Putra Pidada(11), Hendro Widagdo(12), Martiana Suciningtyas(13)

(1) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(6) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(7) Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Syaraf, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(8) Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Syaraf, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(9) Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Syaraf, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(10) Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik dan Medikolegal, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(11) Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik dan Medikolegal, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(12) Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik dan Medikolegal, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(13) Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik dan Medikolegal, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK Cara membatik di Indonesia mulai banyak beralih dari pemakaian bahan alami menjadi bahan cat sintesis. Cat sintetis yang digunakan sering kali mengandung logam berat di antaranya timbal (Pb) dan kromium (Cr). Pemakaian logam berat dalam waktu lama akan mengganggu kesehatan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat hubungan kadar logam Pb dan Cr dalam darah dan limbah dengan kadar hemoglobin (Hb) dan packed cell volume (PCV) serta mengetahui prevalensi gejala toksisitas yang dirasakan pada pekerja di tiga sentra batik di Kecamatan Lendah Kulon Progo. Sebanyak 76 pegawai di tiga sentra batik terdiri atas 37 orang dari sentra SB, 20 orang dari FA dan 19 orang dari SA ditentukan kadar Hb, PCV, kadar Pb dan Cr-nya dengan metode inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Air limbah lingkungan dari ketiga lokasi sentra batik diambil dan diperiksa kadar Pb dan Cr-nya. Hasil antara ketiga lokasi diuji
normalitasnya dan dianalisis dengan analisis varian atau Kruskal-Wallis. Hubungan antara kadar Pb dan Cr baik darah maupun limbah dengan kadar logam berat dalam darah dianalisis dengan uji korelasi Pearson atau Spearman. Hasil dinyatakan berbeda bermakna jika p < 0,05. Gejala penyakit yang dialami pekerja yang diperkirakan berhubungan dengan toksisitas logam berat dihitung frekuensinya. Hasil pemeriksaan antropometri, tekanan darah, kadar Hb, PCV dan logam berat dari ketiga lokasi yang diperiksa tidak berbeda bermakna (p > 0,05). Kadar Pb darah dan krom di sentra SB dan FA berbeda bermakna dengan di sentra SA (p < 0,05). Tidak terdapat korelasi yang signifikan secara statistik antara kadar Pb darah, Cr darah, dan Pb limbah dengan kadar Hb dan PCV. Gejala iritasi kulit, pusing, dan nyeri sendi dirasakan oleh 36,8-48,7% responden. Kadar timbal dan krom darah pembatik di sentra SB dan FA lebih tinggi dari pada di sentra SA. Tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara toksisitas Pb dan Cr dengan kadar Hb dan PCV. Gejala toksisitas di antara pekerja batik diperkirakan dapat terjadi karena toksisitas logam berat kronis akibat pemakaian cat batik.

KATA KUNCI batik; hemoglobin; kromium; sel darah; timbal

 

ABSTRACT The dye used to color batik has changed from natural to synthetic materials in several places in Indonesia. Synthetic paints often contain heavy metals including lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr). Chronic use of heavy metals can affect health. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between blood and waste water levels of Pb and Cr with hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV), and to determine how many workers felt the toxicity symptoms in three batik centers in Lendah, Kulon Progo. A total of 76 batik center employees, consisted of 37, 20, and 19 people from the SB, FA, and SA centers were recruited. Determination of Hb, PCV, Pb and Cr levels were conducted with the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Waste water from the three batik centers is taken and examined. The data were analyzed by Oneway ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Correlation analyses were performed with Pearson or Spearman correlation test. Results were considered significant if p < 0.05. Disease symptoms experienced by workers that were estimated to be associated with heavy metal toxicity were calculated in frequency. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, Hb levels, PCV and heavy metals levels were not significantly different between centers (p>0.05). Blood Pb and Cr from the SB and FA were significantly different from those at the SA center (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant correlations between blood Pb levels, blood Cr, and Pb waste with hemoglobin and PCV levels. Symptoms of skin irritation, dizziness, and joint pain were felt by 37-49% of respondents. Blood levels of Pb and Cr in the SB and FA centers are higher than in the SA centers. There was no significant correlation between Pb and Cr toxicity with hemoglobin and PCV levels. Symptoms of toxicity among batik workers are thought to occur due to chronic heavy metal toxicity due to the use of synthetic paint.

KEYWORDS batik; haemoglobin; chromium; blood cell; plumbum


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.39156

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