Pengaruh Ketinggian Tempat terhadap Pertumbuhan, Hasil dan Kandungan Steviol Glikosida pada Tanaman Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)

https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.37165

Daniar Rafiatul Azkiyah(1*), Tohari Tohari(2)

(1) Departemen Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departemen Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Ketinggian tempat merupakan faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tanaman stevia. Percobaan ini dilakukan di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta pada bulan Juli hingga November 2017 untuk mempelajari pengaruh ketinggian tempat terhadap pertumbuhan, hasil dan kandungan steviol glikosida tanaman stevia. Tanaman stevia ditanam di tiga ketinggian tempat yang berbeda yaitu 167 meter di atas permukaan laut (mdpl), 582 mdpl dan 897 mdpl. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap variabel lingkungan, variabel pertumbuhan (tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, biomasa tanaman), rasio tajuk/akar, variabel hasil, dan kandungan steviol glikosida (kandungan total steviosida dan rasio rebaudiosida A/steviosida). Berdasarkan data tersebut, digunakan analisis regresi untuk mengetahui pengaruh ketinggian tempat terhadap variabel yang diamati. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan ketinggian tempat berkorelasi secara signifikan terhadap suhu udara yang kemudian mempengaruhi pertumbuhan (bobot segar akar dan bobot kering akar), hasil  (bobot kering daun dan tajuk) dan kandungan steviol glikosida (kandungan total steviosida dan rasio rebaudiosida A/steviosida). Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tanaman stevia dipengaruhi oleh ketinggian tempat sehingga umur panen di dataran rendah lebih pendek dibandingkan dataran tinggi. Di ketinggian 167 mdpl, kandungan rebaudiosida A lebih tinggi dibandingkan kandugan steviosida.


Keywords


Stevia; ketinggian tempat; kandungan steviol glikosida

Full Text:

PDF


References

Aidoo, M.K., E. Bdolach, A. Fait, N. Lazarovitch. 2016. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 106: 73-81.

Arai-Sanoh, Y., T. Ishimaru, A. Ohsumi and M. Kondo. 2010. Effect of soil temperature on growth and root function in rice. Plant Production Science 13 (3): 235-242.

Brandle, J.E., A.N. Starratt and M. Gijzen. 1998. Stevia rebaudiana: Its agricultural, biological, and chemical properties. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 78 : 527-536.

Ceunen, S and J. M. C. Geuns. 2013. Influence of photoperiodism on the spatio-temporal accumulation of steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Plant Science 198: 72 – 82.

Du, Y.C. and S. Tachibana. 1994. Effect of supraoptimal root temperature on the growth, root respiration and sugar content of cucumber plants. Scientia Horticulturae 58: 289-301.

Fitter, A.H. and R.K.M. Hay. 2002. Environmental Physiology of Plants. Third Edition. Academic Press, UK.

Giri, A, S. Heckathorn, S. Mishra, C. Krause. 2017. Heat stress decrease level of nutrient-uptake and assimilation proteins in tomato roots. Plants 6, DOI: 10.3390/plants6010006.

Grimstad, S.O. 1993. The effect of a daily low temperature pulse on growth and development of greenhouse cucumber and tomato plants during propagation. Scientia Horticulturae 53: 53 – 62.

Ghorbani,T., D. Kahrizi, M. Saeidi, and I. Arii. 2017. Effect of sucrose concentrations on Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni tissue culture and gene expression. Cell Mol. Biol. 8: 33 - 37. (Abstr.)

Guleria,P., V. Kumar and S. K. Yadav. 2011. Effet of sucrose on steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 8: 401 - 407.

Hirai, G., T. Okumura, S. Takeuchi, O. Tanaka and H. Chujo. 2000. Studies on the effect of relative humidity of the atmosphere on the growth and physiology of rice plants. Plant Production Science 3(2): 129-133.

Lafta, A.M. and J. H. Lorenzen, 1995. Effect of high temperature on plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in potato. Plant Physiology 109: 637-643.

Martono, Y., S. Riyanto, A. Rohman and S. Martono. 2016. Improvement method of fast and isocratic RP-HPLC analysis of major glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. AIP Conference Proceedings 1755: 080001.

Mizutani, K and O. Tanaka. 2004. Use of Stevia rebaudiana Sweeteners in Japan In: D. Kinghorn (ed). Stevia: The Genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis, London

Sari, C.R., P. Yudono, dan Tohari. 2015. Pengaruh takaran urea terhadap pertumbuhan dan kandungan steviosida tanaman stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M.) pada berbagai umur panen di dataran rendah. Vegetalika 4: 56 – 69.

Shivanna, N., M. Naika, F. Khanum and V.K. Kaul. 2013. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications 27: 103 - 113.

Stenström,A. I.S. Jónsdóttir, and M. Augner. 2002. Genetic and environmental effects on morphology in clonal sedges in the Eurasian Artic. American Journal of Botany 89: 1410-1421.

Yaqoob, U., and I.A. Nawchoo. 2017. Impact of habitat variability and altitude on growth dynamics and reproductive allocation in Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke. Journal of King Saud University - Science 29: 19 - 27.

Yonghua, L., Tiangxiang L., and Qi L. 2008. Plant height as a simple predictor of root to shoot ratio: Evidence from Alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 245-252.

Yuliana, Soemarno, B. Yanuwiadi and A.S. Leksono. 2015. The relationship between habitat altitude, enviromental factors and morphological characteristics of Pluchea indica, Ageratum conyzoides and Elephantopus scaber. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences 3: 143-151.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.37165

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 246 | views : 707

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Vegetalika

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

VEGETALIKA journal indexed by: 

 

       

  

View My Stats