Pengaruh Mindfulness Meditation Training terhadap Atensi Selektif pada Siswa SMP

Danu Mukti, Supra Wimbarti
(Submitted 6 January 2020)
(Published 22 May 2020)

Abstract


Permasalahan atensi yang meliputi ketidakmampuan dalam memfokuskan perhatian dan mengabaikan stimulus yang tidak relevan terjadi pada sebagian siswa SMP. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelatihan meditasi mindfulness terhadap kemampuan atensi selektif siswa SMP. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen kuasi, dengan desain untreated control group design with dependent pretest and posttest samples. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa SMP kelas VIII yang diambil melalui purposive sampling (15 siswa kelompok eksperimen dan 20 siswa kelompok kontrol). Pengumpulan data menggunakan Computerized Stroop Color Word Test dan soal matematika, serta skala Kentucky Inventory Mindfulness Skills sebagai cek manipulasi. Lembar observasi dan buku harian subjek juga digunakan sebagai data pendukung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan skor interference yaitu t=-4,836 (p=0,000; p<0,05) dan skor matematika (Z=-2,187; p<0,05) pada pengukuran posttest antara kelompok eksperimen dan kontrol. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan usulan logis pada sekolah untuk pengadaan program meditasi mindfulness secara berkala, mengingat pentingnya hal tersebut bagi perkembangan kemampuan atensi selektif dan performasi belajar matematika.

Keywords


atensi selektif; pelatihan meditasi mindfulness; prestasi belajar matematika

References


Ainsworth, B., Eddershaw, R., Meron, D., Baldwin, D. S., & Garner, M. (2013). The effect of focused attention and open monitoring meditation in attention network function in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Research, 210(3), 1226-1231. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.09.002

Akatsuki, Y., Nakawaga, S., Sugiura, M., Kawashima, R. (2011). Nutritional quality of breakfast affects cognitive function: An fMRI study. Neuroscience and Medicine, 2(3), 192-197. doi: 10.4236/nm.2011.23026

Andreani, R.L. (2015). Kemampuan atensi dan konsentrasi, perbandingan antara siswa yang sarapan dan tidak sarapan di UPTD SMA Negeri 2 Nganjuk (Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan). Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala, Surabaya.

Astuti, N. B. (2017). Program intervensi berbasis mindfulness untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan psikologis caregiver pasien kanker anak (Tesis tidak dipublikasikan) Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assesment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assesment, 11(3), 191-206. doi: 10.1177/1073191104268029

Carrasco, M., Ling, S., & Read, S. (2004). Attention alters appearance. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 308-113. doi: 10.1038/nn1194

Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitve Therapy and Research, 32(3), 303-322. doi: 10.1007/s10608-007-9119-0

Checa, P., & Rueda, M. R. (2011). Behavioral and brain measures of executive attention and school competence in late childhood. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36. 1018-1032. doi: 10.1080/87565641.2011.591857

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (Edisi kedua). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Faridah, U., & Indraswari, V. (2017). Pemberian kacang hijau sebagai upaya peningkatan kadar hemoglobin pada remaja putri. In The 5th Urecol Proceeding(hal. 215-222).

Frewen, P. A., Unholzer, F., Logie-Hagan, K. R. J., & MacKinley, J. D. (2012). Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS): Test-retest reliability and sensitivity to repeated practice. Mindfulness, 5(2), 161-169. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0161-y

Goldstein, E. B. (2011). Cognitive psychology (Edisi ketiga). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Hasenkamp, W., Wilson-Mendenhall, C. D., Duncan, E., & Barsalou, L. W. (2012). Mind wandering and attention during focused meditation: A fine-grained temporal analysis of fluctuating cognitive states. Neuroimage, 59, 750–760. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.008

Hart, H., Radua, J., Mataix-Cols, D., & Rubia, K. (2012). Meta-analysis of fMRI studies of timing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 2248–2256. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.08.003

Hildebrandt, L. K., McCall, C., & Singer, T. (2017) Differential effects of attention, compassion, and socio-cognitively based mental practices on self-reports of mindfulness and compassion. Mindfulness, 8(2). doi: 10.1007/s12671-017-0716-z

Hodgins, H. S., & Adair, K. C. (2010). Attentional processes and meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 19(4), 872-878. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2010.04.002

Ie, A., Ngnoumen, C. T. & Langer, E. J. (2014). The Wiley Blackwell handbook of mindfulness. UK: Wiley Blackwell

James, W. (1990). The principles of psychology (Volume 1). New York: Dover Publications.

Jensen, C. G., Vangkilde, S., Frokjaer, V., & Hasselbalch, S. G. (2011). Mindfulness training affect attention-Or is it attentional effort. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 141(1), 106-123. doi: 10.1037/a0024931

Kerr, C. E., Sacchet, M. D., Lazar, S. W., Moore, C. I., & Jones, S. R. (2013). Mindfulness starts with the body: Somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation. Frontier In Human Neuroscience, 7(12). doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00012

Larega, T.S.P. (2015). Effect of breakfast on the level of concentration in adolescents. Medical Journal of Lampung University, 4(2), 115-121.

Lu, S., Huang, C., Rios, J. (2017). Mindfulness and academic performance: An example of migrant children in China. Children and Youth Services Review. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.09.008

Matlin, M. W. (2009). Cognitive psychology (Edisi ketujuh). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Miller, B. L., & Cummings, J.L. (2007). The human frontal lobe: Functions and disorders. New York: Guilford Publications.

Moisala, M., Salmela, V., Salo, E., Carlson, S., Vuontela, V., Salonen, O., Alho, K. (2015). Brain activity during devided and selective atenttion to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9(86). doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00086  

Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness, and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(1), 176-186. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2008.12.008

Mrazek, M. D., Franklin, M. S., Phillips, D. T., Baird, B. & Schooler, J. W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological Science. 24(5), 776–781. doi: 10.1177/0956797612459659

Neumann, E., & DeSchepper, B. G. (1991). Costs and benefits of target activation and distractor inhibition in selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17(6), 1136-1145. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.17.6.1136  

Piazza, M., & Dehaene, S. (2004). From number neurons to mental arithmetic: the cognitive neuroscience of number sense. In Gazzaniga, M. (Ed.), The cognitive neuroscience III. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Pratama, I. Y., Sinaga, J. L., & Ompusunggu, H. E. S. (2017). Korelasi antara kadar hemoglobin dengan tingkat konsentrasi pada mahasiswa laki-laki Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas HKBP Nommensen Medan. Nommensen Journal of Medicine 3(2), 58-62.

Rosenbaum, D., Maier, M. J., Hudak, J., Wells, A., Fallgater, A. J., Ehlis, A. C. (2018). Neurophysiologycal correlates of the attention training technique: A component study. NeuroImage: Clinical, 19, 1018-1024. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2018.06.021

Rubia, K. (2009). The neurobiology of meditation and its clinical effectiveness in psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychology, 82(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.04.003

Schrobsdorff, H., Ihrke, M., Behrendt, J., Hasselhorn, M., & Herrmann, J. M. (2012). Inhibition in the dynamics of selective attention: An integrative model for negative priming. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(491). 1-21. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00491

Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi experimental design for generalized causal inference. Boston: Mifflin Company

Smith, E. E., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2014). Psikologi kognitif: Pikiran dan otak (H. P. Soetjipto & S. M. Soetjipto, Terj.). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Sternberg, R. J. (2008). Psikologi Kognitif (Edisi keempat) (Y. Santoso, Terj.). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2012). Cognitive psychology (Edisi keenam). Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Stevens, C., & Bavelier, D. (2012). The role of selective attention on academic foundation: A cognitive neuroscience perspective. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 530-548. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2011.11.001  

Tomasino, B., & Fabbro, F. (2016). Increase in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after 8 week of focused attention based mindfulness meditation. Brain and Cognition, 102, 46–54. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2015.12.004

Umniyah & Afiatin, T. (2009). Pengaruh pelatihan pemusatan perhatian (mindfulness) terhadap peningkatan empati perawat. Jurnal Intervensi Psikologi,1(1), 17-40. doi: 10.20885/intervensipsikologi.vol.1.iss1.art


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamajpp.53189

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Gadjah Mada Journal of Professional Psychology (GamaJPP)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.