Aktivitas Belajar dan Perilaku Kerja Inovatif pada Masa Pandemi Dimediasi oleh Efikasi-Diri Inovasi

Dhea Rizky Ardini, Arum Etikariena
(Submitted 28 July 2021)
(Published 30 October 2021)

Abstract


Perilaku kerja inovatif telah diteliti sebagai salah satu hal yang berguna bagi keberlangsungan perusahaan di masa pandemi Covid-19. Namun, perubahan pada berbagai aspek dalam lingkungan kerja akibat penyebaran Covid-19 menimbulkan tantangan bagi karyawan untuk menampilkan perilaku inovatif. Diduga bahwa keyakinan individu untuk berinovasi dapat membantu karyawan untuk dapat konsisten memberikan performa terbaiknya dengan menampilkan perilaku inovatif di masa pandemi Covid-19. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat peran efikasi-diri inovasi sebagai variabel mediator dalam hubungan antara aktivitas belajar formal maupun informal terhadap perilaku kerja inovatif karyawan. Responden penelitian ini merupakan karyawan dengan rentang usia 24-44 tahun yang bekerja di area Jabodetabek dengan masa kerja minimal 1 tahun dan pendidikan terakhir minimal S-1. Skala yang digunakan adalah Skala Aktivitas Belajar Formal, Skala Aktivitas Belajar Informal, Skala Efikasi-Diri Inovasi, dan Skala Perilaku Kerja Inovatif. Studi kuantitatif dilakukan terhadap 165 responden menggunakan metode accidental sampling. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei dengan menyebarkan kuesioner daring. Untuk pengolahan data menggunakan analisis regresi mediasi dengan aplikasi statistik SPSS 25 PROCESS. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa efikasi diri inovasi memediasi sebagian hubungan antara aktivitas belajar formal dan informal dengan perilaku kerja inovatif. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan implikasi positif kepada karyawan, penyelia, maupun perusahaan.

Keywords


aktivitas belajar; covid-19; efikasi-diri inovasi; perilaku kerja inovatif

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamajop.67988

References


Azevedo, A., & Shane, M. J. (2019). A new training program in developing cultural intelligence can also improve innovative work behavior and resilience: A longitudinal pilot study of graduate students and professional employees. International Journal of Management Education, 17(3), 100303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2019.05.004

Azwar, S. (2012). Reliabilitas dan validitas (Edisi keempat). Pustaka Pelajar.

Bandura, A. (1977a). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6402(78)90002-4

Bandura, A. (1977b). Social learning theory. Diakses dari http://library.lol/main/D361C0344BEE96F7AB9D34B600C7EEE7

Bandura, A. (1986). The Explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359–373. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1986.4.3.359

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Diakses dari http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9703260522&site=ehost-live

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Dalam F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (hal. 307–337). Diakses dari https://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/BanduraGuide2006.pdf

Bandura, A., & Cervone, D. (1986). Differential engagement of self-reactive influences in cognitive motivation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 38(1), 92–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(86)90028-2

Bos-nehles, A. C., & Veenendaal, A. A. R. (2019). Perceptions of HR practices and innovative work behavior: The moderating effect of an innovative climate. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(18), 2661-2683. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2017.1380680.

Cerasoli, C. P., Alliger, G. M., Donsbach, J. S., Mathieu, J. E., Tannenbaum, S. I., & Orvis, K. A. (2018). Antecedents and outcomes of informal learning behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 33, 203–230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-017-9492-y

Chanana, N., & Sangeeta. (2020). Employee engagement practices during COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Public Affairs, (8), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2508

Clark-Carter, D. (2019). Quantitative psychological research: The complete student’s companion (Edisi keempat). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.2010.02008.x

Coetzer, A., Susomrith, P., & Ampofo, E. T. (2020). Opportunities to participate in formal and informal vocational learning activities and work-related outcomes in small professional services businesses. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 72(1), 88-114. https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2019.1584637

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (Edisi kedua). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00544941

Darwish, S., Ahmed, U., & Pahi, M. H. (2020). Research article innovative work behavior during covid-19 for medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12(4), 1927–1934. https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2020.12.04.277

Dörner, N. (2012). Innovative work behavior: The roles of employee expectations and effects on job performance (University of St. Gallen). Diakses dari https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.993.4081&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Etikariena, A. (2018). Perbedaan perilaku kerja inovatif berdasarkan karakteristik individu karyawan. Jurnal Psikologi, 17(2), 107. https://doi.org/10.14710/jp.17.2.107-118

Etikariena, A. & Muluk, H. (2014). Hubungan antara memori organisasi dan perilaku inovatif karyawan. Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia, 18(2), 77–88. https://doi.org/10.7454/mssh.v18i2.3463

Froehlich, D. E., Beausaert, S., & Segers, M. (2017). Development and validation of a scale measuring approaches to work-related informal learning. International Journal of Training and Development, 21(2), 130–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijtd.12099

Froehlich, D. E., Segers, M., Beausaert, S., & Kremer, M. (2019). On the relation between task-variety, social informal learning, and employability. Vocations and Learning, 12(1), 113–127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-018-9212-4

Gerber, E. M., Olson, J. M., & Komarek, R. L. D. (2012). Extracurricular design-based learning: Preparing students for careers in innovation. International Journal of Engineering Education, 28(2), 317–324. Diakses dari https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289689632_Extracurricular_Design-Based_Learning_Preparing_Students_for_Careers_in_Innovation

Gerken, M. (2016). How do employees learn at work? (University of Maastricht). Diakses dari https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305392382_How_do_employees_learn_at_work_Understanding_informal_learning_from_others_in_different_sectors

Gist, M. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy : A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability. The Academy of Management Review, 17(2), 183–211. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2307/258770

Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L.-A. B. (2012). Research Methods For The Behavioral Sciences 4th edition (Edisi keempat). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Hancock, B., & Schaninger, B. (2020). HR says talent is crucial for performance - and the pandemi proves it. Dalam McKinsey & Company. Diakses dari https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/hr-says-talent-is-crucial-for-performance-and-the-pandemi-proves-it#

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (Edisi kedua). Diakses dari http://library.lol/main/D273C8C71C1AE4B604733B48DDFE3EC2

Hernaus, T., Maric, M., & Černe, M. (2019). Age-sensitive job design antecedents of innovative work behavior: The role of cognitive job demands. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 34(5), 368–382. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-10-2018-0478

Hsiao, H.-C., Chang, J.-C., Tu, Y.-L., & Chen, S.-C. (2011). The impact of self-efficacy on innovative work behaviorfor teachers. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 1(1), 31–36. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijssh.2011.v1.6

Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(3), 287–302. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317900167038

Janssen, O., Van De Vliert, E., & West, M. (2004). The bright and dark sides of individual and group innovation: A Special Issue introduction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(2), 129–145. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.242

Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2013). Psychological testing: Principles, applications & issues (Edisi kedelapan). Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Kumar, R. R. (2011). Turn over issues in the textile industry in Ethiopia: A case of ArbaMinch textile company. African Journal of Marketing Management, 3(2), 32–44. Diakses dari https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMM/article-full-text-pdf/05F3E874505

Kyndt, E., & Baert, H. (2013). Antecedents of employees’ involvement in work-related learning: A systematic review. In Review of Educational Research (Vol. 83). https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654313478021

Lecat, A., Beausaert, S., & Raemdonck, I. (2018). On the relation between teachers’ (in)formal learning and innovative working behavior: the mediating role of employability. Vocations and Learning, 11(3), 529–554. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-018-9199-x

London, M. (2011). Lifelong learning: Introduction. Dalam P. E. Nathan & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Oxford Library of Psychology (hal. 3–11). https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195390483.001.0001

Messmann, G., & Mulder, R. H. (2011). Innovative work behaviour in vocational colleges: Understanding how and why innovations are developed. Vocations and Learning, 4(1), 63–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-010-9049-y

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (Edisi ketiga). Diakses dari http://library.lol/main/81BC7485BC968C17EA4672B6423B4ED9

Olsen, D. S. (2016). Adult learning in innovative organisations. European Journal of Education, 51(2), 210–226. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12170

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2020). Global economy faces gravest threat since the crisis as coronavirus spreads. Diakses April 25, 2021, dari Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development website: https://www.oecd.org/newsroom/global-economy-faces-gravest-threat-since-the-crisis-as-coronavirus-spreads.htm

Østergaard, C. R., Timmermans, B., & Kristinsson, K. (2011). Does a different view create something new? the effect of employee diversity on innovation. Research Policy, 40(3), 500–509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2010.11.004

Robison, J. (2009, February 19). Building engagement in this economic crisis. Gallup.

Schar, M., Gilmartin, S. K., Rieken, B., Brunhaver, S. R., Chen, H. L., & Sheppard, S. (2017). The making of an innovative engineer: Academic and life experiences that shape engineering task and innovation self-efficacy. ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, 2017-June. https://doi.org/10.18260/1-2--28986

Schmidt, C. (2000). Helping the sidelined find more job satisfaction. American Psychological Association.

Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. The Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580–607. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2307/256701

Shanker, R., Bhanugopan, R., van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & Farrell, M. (2017). Organizational climate for innovation and organizational performance: The mediating effect of innovative work behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 100, 67–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.02.004

Sitanggang, L. M. S. (2020, August 10). Demi efisiensi di masa pandemi Corona, sejumlah bank memangkas biaya karyawan. Diakses dari https://insight.kontan.co.id/news/demi-efisiensi-di-masa-pandemi-corona-sejumlah-bank-memangkas-biaya-karyawan

Sousa, V. D., & Rojjanasrirat, W. (2011). Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: A clear and user-friendly guideline. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 17(2), 268–274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01434.x

Van Der Heijden, B., Boon, J., Van Der Klink, M., & Meijs, E. (2009). Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members. International Journal of Training and Development, 13(1), 19–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2008.00313.x

Wahyudi, N. A. (2020, March 19). DKI Jakarta provinsi terinovatif di Indonesia. Bisnis.Com. Diakses dari https://jakarta.bisnis.com/read/20201219/77/1333189/dki-jakarta-provinsi-terinovatif-di-indonesia

Woods, S. A., Mustafa, M. J., Anderson, N., & Sayer, B. (2017). Innovative work behavior and personality traits: Examining the moderating effects of organizational tenure. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29–42. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-01-2017-0016


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Gadjah Mada Journal of Psychology (GamaJoP)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.