Predictors of Workplace Well-Being for Dual-Earner Couples During Covid-19 Pandemic

Gisela Oktaria Efi, Endang Parahyanti
(Submitted 17 September 2020)
(Published 28 May 2021)

Abstract


The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the life order of entire community including employees from dual-earner families. Overlapping roles experienced can cause tension and trigger work-family conflicts that can impact workplace well-being. Previous studies had often focused on well-being in general and there was a lack of research related to well-being in dual earner couples during pandemic. This study investigated the predictor role of core self-evaluation and spousal support through mediating role of work family conflict (WFC) on workplace well-being. Based on the conservation of resources theory, we need to identify essential resource to fulfill workplace well-being. Data were collected from 200 employed Jakarta Metropolitan area (Jabodetabek) dual-earners who had at least one child below the age of 13. According to the mediation with two predictors analysis, the mediating effect of WFC can only predict the linkage between core self-evaluation and workplace well-being (β = 0.02, SE =0.02; 95% CI [0.005, 0.061]) but cannot predict the role of spousal support through WFC on workplace well-being (β = 0.00, SE =0.00; 95% CI [-0.002, 0.007]). This finding explained the importance of self-evaluation during pandemic to enhance workplace well-being and buffered negative effect of work and family related burdens.

Keywords


core self-evaluation; dual earner couple; spousal support; work family conflict; workplace well-being

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamajop.59844

References


Aryee, S., Luk, V., Leung, A., & Lo, S. (1999). Role Stressors, Interrole Conflict, and Well-Being: The Moderating Influence of Spousal Support and Coping Behaviors among Employed Parents in Hong Kong. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(2), 259–278. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1998.1667

Aspinwall, L. G., & Taylor, S. E. (1997). A stitch in time: Self-regulation and proactive coping. Psychological Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.417

Aycan, Z., & Eskin, M. (2005). Relative contributions of childcare, spousal support, and organizational support in reducing work-family conflict for men and women: The case of Turkey. Sex Roles, 53(7–8), 453–471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-7134-8

Baruch, Y. (2000). Teleworking : benefits and pitfalls as perceived by professionals and managers. 34–49.

Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186–3191. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014

Blanch, A., & Aluja, A. (2012). Social support (family and supervisor), work-family conflict, and burnout: Sex differences. Human Relations, 65(7), 811–833. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712440471

Boyar, S. L., & Mosley, D. C. (2007). The relationship between core self-evaluations and work and family satisfaction: The mediating role of work-family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71(2), 265–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.06.001

Burke, R. J., & Greenglass, E. R. (1999). Work-family conflict, spouse support, and nursing staff well-being during organizational restructuring. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4), 327–336. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.4.4.327

Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(2), 169–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2004.08.009

Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310–357. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310

de Wet, W., van Zittert, P., Koekemoer, E., & Treurnich, E. (2012). Differences in the Wellbeing of Dual-earner Parents with Young Children. South African Review of Sociology, 43(3), 106–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/21528586.2012.727552

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Hedonia, eudaimonia, and well-being: An introduction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9018-1

Ding, H., Yu, E., & Li, Y. (2020). Transformational leadership and core self-evaluation: The roles of psychological well-being and supervisor-subordinate guanxi. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 30(3), 236–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2020.1767934

Drummond, S., O’Driscoll, M. P., Brough, P., Kalliath, T., Siu, O. L., Timms, C., … Lo, D. (2017). The relationship of social support with well-being outcomes via work–family conflict: Moderating effects of gender, dependants and nationality. Human Relations, 70(5), 544–565. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726716662696

Fisher, C. D. (2014). Conceptualizing and Measuring Wellbeing at Work. Wellbeing, III, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118539415.wbwell018

Gibson, A., & Hicks, R. (2018). Psychological Capital and Core Self-Evaluations in the Workplace: Impacts on Well-Being. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 10(2), 15. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v10n2p15

Goode, W. J. (1960). A Theory of Role Strain. American Sociological Review, 25(4), 483. https://doi.org/10.2307/2092933

Greaves, C. E., Parker, S. L., Zacher, H., & Jimmieson, N. L. (2017). Working mothers’ emotional exhaustion from work and care: The role of core self-evaluations, mental health, and control. Work and Stress, 31(2), 164–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2017.1303760

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis, Second Edition: A Regression-Based Approach. In The Guilford Press. New York.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of Resources: A New Attempt at Conceptualizing Stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513

Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and Psychological Resources and Adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307–324. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.6.4.307

Hsieh, H. H., Wang, Y. C., & Huang, J. T. (2019). Core self-evaluations, perceived organizational support, and work-related well-being: Testing a moderated mediation model. Personnel Review, 48(3), 659–671. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-04-2018-0128

Irak, D., Kalkışım, K., & Yıldırım, M. (2020). Emotional Support Makes the Difference: Work-Family Conflict and Employment Related Guilt Among Employed Mothers. Sex Roles, 82(1–2), 53–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01035-x

Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self-evaluations and job and life satisfaction: The role of self-concordance and goal attainment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 257–268. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.2.257

Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core self-evaluations scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56(2), 303–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00152.x

Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., & Kluger, A. N. (1998). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(1), 17–34. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.1.17

Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Judge, T. A., & Scott, B. A. (2009). The Role of Core Self-Evaluations in the Coping Process. Journal of Applied Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013214

Karapinar, P., Camgoz, S., & Ekmekci, O. (2019). Employee Wellbeing, Workaholism, Work–Family Conflict and Instrumental Spousal Support: A Moderated Mediation Model. Journal of Happiness Studies, (1806251104). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00191-x

Karatepe, O. M., & Azar, A. K. (2013). The Effects of Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation on Turnover Intentions: The Moderating Role of Core Self-Evaluations. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 14(3), 255–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2013.809987

King, L. a, Mattimore, L. K., King, D. W., Adams, G. a, Journal, S., May, N., & King, L. a. (1995). Family Support Inventory for Workers : A New Measure of Perceived Social Support from Family Members Stable URL : http://www.jstor.org/stable/2488511 REFERENCES Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article : You may need to log in to JSTOR to. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(3), 235–258.

Liu, W., Li, Z., Ling, Y., & Cai, T. (2016). Core self-evaluations and coping styles as mediators between social support and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 88, 35–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.044

Lunn, P., Belton, C., Timmons, S., & Robertson, D. (2020). Help Fight the Coronavirus. (656). Retrieved from https://www.esri.ie/publications/using-behavioural-science-to-help-fight-the-coronavirus

Maruyama, T., & Tietze, S. (2012). From anxiety to assurance: concerns and outcomes of telework. Personnel Review, 41(4), 450–469. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483481211229375

Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2005). Applied Multivariate Reserach: Design and Interpretation. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Montasem, A., Brown, S. L., & Harris, R. (2013). Do core self-evaluations and trait emotional intelligence predict subjective well-being in dental students? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(5), 1097–1103. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12074

Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work-family conflict and family-work conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 400–410. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.4.400

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

O’Donoghue, A., Conway, E., & Bosak, J. (2016). Abusive supervision, employee well-being and ill-being: The moderating role of core self-evaluations. Research on Emotion in Organizations, 12, 3–34. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1746-979120160000012001

O’Driscoll, M. P., Brough, P., & Kalliath, T. J. (2004). Work/family conflict, psychological well‐being, satisfaction and social support: a longitudinal study in New Zealand. Equal Opportunities International, 23(1/2), 36–56. https://doi.org/10.1108/02610150410787846

Peeters, M. C. W., & Le Blanc, P. M. (2001). Towards a match between job demands and sources of social support: A study among oncology care providers. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10(1), 53–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320042000034

Rasool, I., Zubair, A., & Anwar, M. (2019). Role of Perceived Self-efficacy and Spousal Support in Psychological Well-being of Female Entrepreneurs. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 34(4), 899–917. https://doi.org/10.33824/PJPR.2019.34.4.48

Restubog, S. L. D., Ocampo, A. C. G., & Wang, L. (2020). Taking control amidst the chaos: Emotion regulation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 103440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2020.103440

Rosopa, P. J., Datu, J. A. D., Robertson, S. A., & Atkinson, T. P. (2016). Core self-evaluations and subjective well-being in the U.S. and the Philippines: The moderating role of self-construal. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(1), 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12265

Rothausen, T. J. (2013). Hedonic and Eudaimonic Enjoyment of Job and Fulfillment of Job Purpose. Retrieved from https://ir.stthomas.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=ocbmgmtwp

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On Happiness and Human Potentials: A Review of Research on Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Life Span Development (13th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sudha, K. S., & Shahnawaz, M. G. (2013). Core self-evaluation as a correlate of subjective wellbeing among special educators. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 39(1), 83–89.

Super, D. (2012). Developmental self-concept. Jurnal Manajemen, 20(2), 245–246. https://doi.org/10.24912/jm.v20i2.46

Taha, S., Matheson, K., Cronin, T., & Anisman, H. (2014). Intolerance of uncertainty, appraisals, coping, and anxiety: The case of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. British Journal of Health Psychology, 19(3), 592–605. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12058

Vieira, A. L. (2011). Interactive LISREL in Practice: Getting Started a SIMPLIS Approach. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18044-6

Westring, A. F., & Ryan, A. M. (2010). Personality and inter-role conflict and enrichment: Investigating the mediating role of support. Human Relations. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726710371236

Wu, C. H., & Griffin, M. A. (2012). Longitudinal relationships between core self-evaluations and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(2), 331–342. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025673

Zhang, Y., & Ma, Z. F. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents in Liaoning Province, China: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072381

Zheng, X., Zhu, W., Zhao, H., & Zhang, C. (2015). Employee well-being in organizations: Theoretical model, scale development, and cross-cultural validation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(5), 621–644. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1990

 


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Gadjah Mada Journal of Psychology (GamaJoP)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.