Bagaimana Anak Muda Memahami Kesenjangan Ekonomi?

Victorius Didik Suryo Hartoko, Thomas Dicky Hastjarjo, Avin Fadilla Helmi
(Submitted 22 July 2019)
(Published 13 August 2019)


This study aimed to find out how young adult understand the economic disparity issue and whether ideas related to that problem had authoritarianism and materialism inclinations. The study was done to a group of university students age 18 – 30 years old. There were 295 people participating in the study. It utilized a survey with an open-ended questionnaire to figure out participants’ feelings and thoughts toward economic disparity. Subjects also filled out authoritarianism and materialism scales. The result showed that subjects’ responses toward economic disparity could be categorized into three types: 1) critical response (structural), 2) naive individualistic response and 3) fatalistic response. Most subjects provided a naive individualistic response. Result of the cross-tabulation test showed that authoritarianism had a negative correlation with a critical response but had a positive correlation with naive individualistic response. Materialism had a positive correlation with naive individualistic response. Authorianism and materialism were not related to a fatalistic response.


authoritarianism; critical conscience; economic disparity; materialism; naive individualistic conscience

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamajop.47968


Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunsivik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper & Row.

Altemeyer, B. (2006). The authoritarian. Winnipeg, Canada: Departement of Psychology University of Manitoba.

Baker, A. M., & Brookins, C. C. (2014). Toward the development of a measure of sociopolitical consciousness: Listening to the voices of Salvadoran youth. Journal of Community Psychology, 42(8), 1015–1032. doi: 10.1002/jcop.21668

Belk, R. W., & Belk, R. W. (1985). Materialism: Trait aspects of living in the material world. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(3), 265–280.

Brady, D. (2009). Rich democracies, poor people: How politics explain poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cantal, C., Milfont, T. L., Wilson, M. S., & Gouveia, V. V. (2015). Differential effects of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation on dimensions of generalized prejudice in Brazil. European Journal of Personality, 27, 17–27. doi: 10.1002/per.1978

Caruso, E. M., Vohs, K. D., Baxter, B., & Waytz, A. (2013). Mere exposure to money increases endorsement of free-market systems and social inequality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(2), 301–306. doi: 10.1037/a0029288

Duckitt, J. (2001). A dual-process cognitive-motivational theory of ideology and prejudice. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 33, pp. 41-113). San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press.

Flanagan, C. A., Kim, T., Pykett, A., Finlay, A., Gallay, E. E., & Pancer, M. (2014). Adolescents’ theories about economic inequality: Why are some people poor while others are rich? Developmental Psychology, 50(11), 2512–2525. doi: 10.1037/a0037934

Flanagan, C. A., & Tucker, C. J. (1999). Adolescents' explanations for political issues: Concordance with their views of self and society. Developmental Psychology, 35(5), 1198-1209. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.35.5.1198

Freire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. Freire, P. (2005). Education for critical consciousnes. London: Continuum.

Indrakesuma, T. R., Janz, E., & Wai-Poi, M. G. (2015). A perceived divide: how Indonesians perceive inequality and what they want done about it. Diunduh dari

Jost, J. T., & Hunyady, O. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of system-justifying ideologies. Current Direction in Psychological Science, 14(5), 114–118. doi: 10.1111%2Fj.0963-7214.2005.00377.x

Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 410-422. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.65.2.410

Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, E. R. (1981). Beliefs about stratification. Annual Review of Sociology, 7, 29–56. doi: 10.1146/

Leahy, R. L. (1990). The development of concepts of economic and social inequality. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 46, 107-120. doi: 10.1002/cd.23219904608

Lee, B. A., Jones, S. H., & Lewis, D. W. (1990). Public beliefs about the causes of homelessness. Social Forces, 69(1), 253–265. doi: 10.1093/sf/69.1.253

Niemelä, M. (2008). Perceptions of the causes of poverty in Finland. Acta Sociologica, 51(1), 23–40. doi: 10.1177/0001699307086816

Oyamot, C. M., Borgida, E., Fisher, E. L., & Fisher, E. L. (2006). Can values moderate the attitude of right-wing authoritarians? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(4), 486–500. doi: 10.1177/0146167205278308

Peterson, B., Duncan, L. E., & Pang, J. S. (2002). Authoritarianism and political impoverishment: Deficits in knowledge and civic disinterest. Political Psychology, 23(1), 97–112. doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00272

Richins, M. L., & Mick, D. G., & Monroe, K. B. (Eds.). (2004). The material values scale: Measurement properties and development of a short form. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 209-219. doi: 10.1086/383436

Royce, E. (2009). Poverty and power a structural perspective on American inequality. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Sibley, C. G., Wilson, M. S., & Duckitt, J. (2007). Effects of dangerous and competitive worldviews on right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation over a five-month period. Political Psychology, 28(3), 357–371. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2007.00572.x

Skitka, L. J. (2003). Of different minds: An accessible identity model of justice reasoning. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7(4), 286–297. doi: 10.1207/S15327957PSPRO704_02

Smith, W. A. (1975). Conscientizacao: an operational definition. University of Massachusetts.

Son Hing, L. S., Bobocel, D. R., Zanna, M. P., & Mcbride, M. V. (2007). Authoritarian dynamics and unethical decision making: high social dominance orientation leaders and high right-wing authoritarian followers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 67–81. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.1.67

Watts, R. J., Williams, N. C., & Jagers, R. J. (2003). Sociopolitical development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 185–194. doi: 10.1023/A:1023091024140


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Gadjah Mada Journal of Psychology (GamaJoP)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.