Dinamika Kontrol Sosial Keluarga dan Teman Sebaya pada Remaja Berisiko Penyalahgunaan NAPZA

Hesti Kusumastuti, M. Noor Rochman Hadjam
(Submitted 7 February 2019)
(Published 7 February 2019)


The purpose of this research is to know in depth how the dynamics of social control family and peers on adolescents who are at risk of drug abuse. Method: This research method using a qualitative research method, which uses data collecting interviews and observation. Participant: This study focused on participants who are at risk of drug abuse with the following criteria: (a) willing to be a participant, (b) gender to male or female, (c) ± adolescents aged 15-18 years, (d) adolescents who are indicated are at risk of drug abuse. Result: The results of this study indicate that adolescents who are at risk of drug abuse are smoking and drinking. High-risk factors cause adolescents to be at risk for drug abuse, ie family conflicts, negative parental models, the involvement of negative activities with peers, and peer-to-peer conformity. This is supported by the weakness of protective factors in adolescent behavior at risk of drug abuse. Weak family controls supported by weak peer control will increase the risk rate for adolescent drug abuse behavior. This suggests that family and peer social controls are very influential to reduce the risk of adolescent drug abusers, especially in prevention and intervention.



adolescence; drug abuse; family; social control; peers

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamajop.43439


Adilla, N. (2009). Pengaruh kontrol sosial terhadap perilaku bullying pelajar di Sekolah Menengah Pertama. Jurnal Kriminologi Indonesia, 5(1), 56-66.

Afiatin, T. (2008). Pencegahan penyalahgunaaan narkoba dengan program AJI. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Akers, R. L., & Jensen, G. F. (2006). The empirical status of social learning theory of crime and deviance: The past, present, and future. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory, 37-76. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Akers, R. L., Krohn, M. D., Lanza-Kaduce, L, Radosevich, M. (1979). Social learning and deviants behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44(4), 636–655. doi: 10.2307/2094592

Bahr, S. J., Hoffmann, J. P., & Yang, X. (2005). Parental and peer influences on the risk of adolescent drug use. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 26(6), 529 – 551.

Barnes, G. M., Hoffman, J. H., Weltw, J. W., Farrel, M. P., & Dintcheff, B.A. (2006). Effects of parental monitoring and peer deviance on substance use and delinquency. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(4), 1084-1105

Begue, L., & Roche, S. (2008). Multidimensional social control variables as predictors of drunkeness among French Adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 1-21. doi: 10.1016/ j.adolescence.2008.04.001

Booth, J. A., Farrell, A & Varano, S. P (2008). Social control, serious delinquency, and risky behavior : A tendered analysis. Crime & Delinquency. http://cad.sagepub.com/content/54/3/423. Diakses Tanggal 27 September 2015

Brank, Carl, Shield (2008). Communication in Family. http://cad.sagepub.com/ content/53/3/423. Diakses Tanggal 27 Januari 2015

Budiyanto, R. (2012). Waspada sepuluh kabupaten kota di jateng rawan narkoba. http://tvOneNewsWaspada, Sepuluh.Kabupaten.Kota.di.Jateng.Rawan.Narkoba-Nusantara.htm. Diakses Tanggal 24 September 2013.

Calafat, A., Fernandez, C., Juan, M., & Becon, E. (2008). Recreational nightlife: Risk and protective factors for drug misuse among young europeans in recreational environments. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 15(2), 189-200. doi: 10.1080/09687630701267366

Chris, J. J. (2007). The function of the social bond. Sociological Quarterly. 48(4), 687–712. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-8525. 2007.00097.x Connell, C. M., Gilreath, T. D., Aklin, W. M., & Brex, R. A. (2010). Social-ecological influences on patterns of substance use among non-metropoloitan high school students. American Journal Community Psychology, 45(1-2), 36-48. doi: 10.1007/s10464-009-9289-x

Curran, P. J., Stice, E., & Chassin, L. (1997). The relation between adolescent alcohol use and peer alcohol use : A longitudinal random coefficient model. Health Psychology, 65(1), 130-140. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.65.1.130

Data Kasus Tindak Pidana Kasus Narkoba di Indonesia Tahun 1997-2008. Reporter. Dit IV/TP Narkoba & KT Bareskrim Polri 1 30 Januari 2009. http://www.bnn.qo.id/portalbaru/portal/konten.php?narna=DataKasus&or Davis, C., Tang, C, & Ko, J. (2004).

The impact of peer, family and school on delinquency: A study of at risk chinese adolescents in Hongkong. International Social Work, 47, 489-502

Dishion, T. J., Capaldi, D. M., & Yoerger, K. (1999). Middle chidhood antecendents to progressions in male adolescent substance use: An ecological analysis of risk and protection. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(2), 175-205. doi: 10.1177/0743558499142003

Dolcini, M. M & Adler, N. E. (1994). Perceived competencys, peer group affiliation, and risk behavior among early adolescents. Health Psychology, 13(6), 496-506. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.13.6.496

Drapela, L. A. (2006). Investigating the effects of family, peer, and school domains on postdroupout drug use. Youth & Society. 37(3), 316-347. doi: 10.1081/JA-100102631

Durkin, K., Wolfe, S. E., & Clark, G. (1999). Social bond theory and binge drinking among college students: A multivariate analysis. College Student Journal, 33, 450-462.

Fleming, C. B., Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., & Abbott, R. D. (2010). Relationships between level and change in family, school, and peer factors during two periods of adolescence and problem behavior at age 19. Journal Youth Adolescence, 39(6), 670-682. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9525-5

Gatins, D. E. & White, R. M. (2006). School based substance abuse programs: Can they influence students’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to substance abuse?. North American Journal of Psychology, 8(3), 517-532.

Gerra, G., Angioni, L., Zaimovic, A., Moi, G., Bussandri, M., Bertacca, S., Santoro, G., Gardini, S., Caccavari, R., Nicoli, M. A. (2004). Substance use among high-school students: Relationships with temperament, personality traits, and parental care perception. Substance Use & Misuse, 39(2), 345-367. doi: 10.1081/JA-120028493

Girodano, A. L. (2012). Social interest and social bonding: Understanding colligiate hazardous drinking and marijuana use. Dissertation. University of North Carolina.

Haddad, L., Shotar, A., Umlauf, F., & Alzyoud, S. (2010). Knowledge of substance abuse among high school students in Jordan. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(2), 143-150. doi: 10.1177/1043659609357632

Herman, R. M. J. (2005). Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan penyalahgunaan NAPZA (Narkotika, Psikotropika, & Zat Adiktif) kalangan siswa SMU. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Farmasi. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI. Jakarta .- www.kalbe.co.id/

Hirschi, T (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley : University of California

Hirschi, T (2001). Causes of delinquency. New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction

Hirschi, T. (2002). Cause of delinquency. New Jersey: New Brunswick.

Kaligis, O. C; & Dirdiosisworo, S. (2002). Narkoba dan peradilannya di Indonesia: Reformasi hukum pidana melalui perundangan dan peradilan. Ed.1. Bandung: Alumni.

Kaplow, J. B., Curran, P. J., Dodge, K. A., & The conduct problems prevention research group. (2002). Child, parent, and peer predictors of early-onset substance use: A multisite longitudinal study. Journal Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(3), 199-216.

Krohn, M. B. & Massey, J. L. (1980). Social control and delinquent behavior. An Examination of the elements of the social bond. The Sociological Quarterly, 21(4), 529-543. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1980.tb00634.x

Lestari, S. (2012). Psikologi keluarga penanaman nilai dan penanaman konflik dalam keluarga. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group

Lin, W. H. & Dembo, R. (2008). An integrated model of juvenile drug use: A cross-demographic groups study. Western Criminology Review, 9(2), 33-51.

Lustin, P. (1976). Human development. Tokyo: McGraw-Hill

Marcos, A. C., Bahr, S. J., & Johnson. R. E. (1986). Test of a bonding/association theory of adolescent drug use. Social Force, 68(1), 135 – 160.

Maslim, R. (2001). Diagnosis gangguan jiwa, Rujukan ringkas PPDGJ-III. Jakarta: Unika Atma Jaya.

Monks, F. J., Knoers, A. M. P., & Haditono, S. R. (2002). Psikologi perkembangan: Pengantar dalam berbagai bagaiannya. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press

Nakhaie, R. M., Silverman, R. A., & LaGrange, T. C. (2000). Self –control and social control : An Examination of gender, ethnicity, class and delinquency. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 25(1), 35 – 59.

Ngai, N. P & Cheung, C. K. (2005). Predictors of the likehood of delinquency: A study of marginal youth in Hong Kong China. Youth & Society, 36(4), 445-470

Olson, D. H., DeFrain, J., & Skogrand, L. (2011). Marriages families: Intimacy, diversity, and strengths. Seventh Edition. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Ozbay, O & Ozcan, Y. Z. (2006). A test of Hirschi's social bonding theory: Juvenile delinquency in the high school of Ankara, Turkey. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(6), 711–726. doi: 10.1177/0306624X05283525

Puente, C. N., Gutierrez, J. L. G., Abella’n, l. C. & Lopez, A. P. (2008). Sensation seeking, attitudes toward drug use, and actual use among adolescents: Testing a model for alcohol and ecstasy use. Substance Use & Misuse, 43(11), 1618-1630. doi: 10.1080/10826080802241151

Purwandari, E & Lestari, R. (2012). Model lklim sekolah pada remaja berisiko tinggi penyalahgunaan NAPZA. Laporan Penelitian.

Purwandari, E (2011). Keluarga, kontrol sosial dan "strain": Model kontinuitas delinquency remaja. Humanitas: Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 8(1), 28-44

Purwandari, E. (2005). Orientasi nilai-nilai hidup remaja menuju kebermaknaan hidup. Proceedings. Temu Ilmiah Nasional ke-4 Ikatan Psikologi Perkembangan Indonesia (IPPI), Semarang, 8-10 September 2005. Hal. 82-91.

Purwandari, E. (2007). Orientasi nilai-nilai hidup: Proses pengambilan keputusan berhenti mengkonsumsi NAPZA. Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora, 8(2), 148-165

Regoli, R. M & Hewitt, J. D (2003). Delinquency in society: Fifth edition, New York: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.

Santrock, J. W. (2003). Adolescence (Perkembangan remaja). Terjemahan. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.

Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2010). Interpretative phenomenological analysis-theory, method, and research. London: Sage Publications.

Steinberg, L. (2011). Adolescence (Ninth edition). New York: McGraw-Hill International Edition.

Sugiyono. (2010). Metode penelitian kuantitatif kualitatif dan R&D. Bandung: CV. Alfabeta I

Way, N., Reddy, R., & Rhodes, J. (2007). Students’ perceptions of school climate during the middle school years: Associations with trajectories of psychological and behavioral adjustment. American Journal Community Psychology, 40(3-4), 194-213. doi: 10.1007/s10464-007-9143y

Wester, S. R. (2008). Male gender role conflict and multiculturalism: Implications for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 36, 294-324. doi: 10.1177/0011000006286341.

Wiatrowski, M. D., Griswold, D. B., & Roberts, M. K. (1981). Social control. Theory and delinquency. American Sociological Review, 46, 525 - 541.

Wills, T. A. & Clearly, S. D. (1999). Peer and adolescent substance use among 6th-9th graders: Latent growth analysis of influence versus selection mechanism. Health Psychology, 18(5), 453-463. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.18.5.453

Yanny, L. D. (2001). Narkoba pencegahan dan penanganannya. Jakarta: Elex Media Komputindo.

Yu, J. J., & Gamble, W. C. (2010). Direct and moderating effects of social affordances on school involvement and delinquency among young adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescent. 20(4), 811 – 824.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Gadjah Mada Journal of Psychology (GamaJoP)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.