How Proponents and Opponents Influence Achievement Motivation: The Role of the Anticipated Emotions of Other People

Bilson Simamora
(Submitted 8 March 2019)
(Published 4 February 2021)


There are countless studies about the influence of other people’s emotions on individuals' behavior. However, the influence of proponents' and opponents' future emotions on achievement motivation remains unclear. This study aims to fill this gap. Therefore, departing from the emotional intelligence theory, the author materializes the anticipated emotions of other people concept and tests it using a static group experimental design with success and failure scenarios, involving 203 participants chosen judgmentally. When reminded of the proponents' joyfulness caused by their success, the Mann-Whitney U test with normal approximation, supported by the Monte Carlo estimation, shows that the mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals of the experimental group are enhanced. Whereas, when reminded that they would be envied and make the opponents feel distressed, the performance-approach goals are improved. In the failure scenario, when the participants were directed to the proponents' distress, as a response to their failure, the four components of the achievement goals are increased: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance. However, the opponents' joyfulness, anticipated as a malicious schadenfreude to the participants' failure, is only successful in stimulating the performance-avoidance goals.  A Bayesian estimate with 5,000 times bootstrapping reveals that self-efficacy mediates the influence of the proponents' anticipated joyfulness on the mastery-approach fully, and on the performance-approach goals in a complementary way. Complementary mediation is also apparent in the impact of the proponents' distress on the mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals. Above all, love for the proponents is more potent than hatred from social environments for increasing the achievement motivation. Further research is encouraged to replicate this study with different social behavior.


Anticipated emotions of others, anticipated emotions of proponents, anticipated emotions of opponents, sirik behavior, self-efficacy, achievement goals

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamaijb.44042


Abraham, J., Kurniadi, M.A., Andangsari, E.W., Ali, M.M., Manurung, R.H., and H.L.H. Warnar,  2020. Prediction of guilt and shame proneness based on disruption to psychological contract: A new light for corruption prevention. Heliyon, 6: e04275.

Adebayo, S.O., 2010. Correlation between academic cheating behavior and achievement motivation. Nature and Science of Sleep, 8(12): 130-134.

Ames, C.,1992. Classrooms: goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84 (3), 261-271.

Alicke, M.D., and Sedikides, C., 2009. Self-enhancement and self-protection: What they are and what they do. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20(1): 1-48.

Anderman, E.M., and  A. C. Koenka, 2017.  The relation between Academic motivation and cheating. Theory Into Practice, 56(2): 95-102.

Bagozzi, R.P., D. Belanche, L.V. Casalo, and C. Flavian, 2016. The Role of anticipated emotions in purchase intentions. Psychology & Marketing, 33(8): 629-645.

Baron, A.M., and A. Wrzesniewski, 2010. I won't let you down ... or will I? Core self-evaluations, other-orientation, anticipated guilt and gratitude, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1): 108-21.

Baumgartner, H., R. Pieters, and R.P. Bagozzi, 2007. Future-oriented emotions: Conceptualization and behavioral effects. European Journal of Social Psychology,  38: 685–696.

Belaza, B., K. Hoefman, J. Ryckebusch, A. Bramson, M. Van den Heuvel, and K. Schoors, 2017. Statistical physics of balance theory. Plos ONE, 12(8), e0183696.

Bozinovski, S., and L. Bozinovska, 2003. Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems.  In Butz et al. (Eds.), Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems (pp. 1–10). Berlin, Germany: Springer. 

Brambilla, M., and P. Riva, 2017. Predicting pleasure at others' misfortune: Morality trumps sociability and competence in driving deservingness and schadenfreude. Motivation and Emotion, 41, 243–253.

Bosone, L., and F. Martinez, 2017. When, how and why is loss-framing more effective than gain- and non-gain-framing in the promotion of detection behaviors?  International Review of Social Psychology,  30(1), 184–192, 2017.

Buonomo, I., C. Fiorilli,  and P. Benevene, 2019. The impact of emotions and hedonic balance on Teachers’ self-efficacy: Testing the bouncing back effect of positive emotions. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:1670.

Chasiotis, A., O. Wedderhoff, T. Rosman, and A.K. Mayer, 2019. The role of approach and avoidance motivation and emotion regulation in coping via health information seeking. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues. Advance online publication.

Chen, S-. W., H.- H. Wang, C. -F. Wei, B.- J. Fwu, and  K.- K. Hwang, 2009. Taiwanese students’ self-attribution for two types of achievement goals. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(2), 179–193.

Domenech-Betoret, F., L. Abellan-Rosello, and A. Gomez-Artiga, 2017. Self-efficacy, satisfaction, and academic achievement: The mediator role of students' expectancy-value beliefs. Frontiers in Psychology, 8 (1193).

Dompnier, B., C. Darnon, and F. Butera, 2013. When performance‐approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: A social value approach. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(3), 587-596.

Elliot, A. J., and H.A. McGregor, 2001. A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501-519.

Elliot, A.J., and J.M. and Harackiewicz, 1991. Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: a mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 461–475.

Elliot, A.J., and K. Murayama, 2008. On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique, illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology,  100 (3), 613–628.

Eskritt, M.,  J. Doucette, and L. Robitaille, 2014. Does future-oriented thinking predict adolescent decision making? The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 175 (2), 163-179.

Farcane, N., D. Deliu, and E. Bureana, 2019. A Corporate Case Study: The Application of Rokeach’s Value System to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Sustainability, 2019, 11, 6612.

Fiori, M., and A.K. Vesely-Maillefer, 2018. Emotional intelligence as an ability: Theory, challenges, and new directions. In  Keefer K., J. Parker, D. Saklofske, (Eds). Emotional Intelligence in Education. Cham, CH: Springer.

Gegenfurtner, A., and G. Hagenauer, 2013. Achievement goals and achievement goal orientations in education. International Journal of Educational Research, 61(1), 1–4.

Gino, F., 2014, December 30. Banking culture encourages dishonesty. Scientific American.

Goodman, J. K., and S. Lim, 2018. When consumers prefer to give material gifts instead of experiences: The role of social distance. Journal of Consumer Research, 45, 365-382.

Grant, A.M., and A. Wrzeniewski, 2010. I won't let you down ... or will I? Core self-evaluations, other-orientation, anticipated guilt and gratitude, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1):108-21,

Hair, J.F., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, and R.E. Anderson, 2016. Multivariate Data Analysis. Seventh Edition. Edinburg, UK: Pearson Education Limited.

Harackiewicz, J.M., K.E. Barron, P.R. Pintrich, A.J. Eliot, and T.M. Thrash, 2002. Revision of achievement goal theory: Necessary and illuminating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2002, 94 (3), 638–64.

Hayes, A.F., 2020. Process (Version 3.5) [Application software]. Retrieved August 16, 2020, from

Huang, C, 2016. Achievement goals and self-efficacy: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 19, 119-137.

Israelashvili, J., D. Sauter, and A.H. Fischer, 2019. How well can we assess our ability to understand others’ feelings? Beliefs about taking others’ perspectives and actual understanding of others’ emotions. Frontiers in Psychology.

Kenny, D.A., 2018. Mediation. Retrieved April 21, 2019, from

Kim, S. C., Y.S. Park, B. S.-W. Ho, and I. Wu, 2017. Family conflict, Asian cultural values, perceived parental control, and affectionate care among Asian American college students. Journal of Asia Pacific Counseling, 7(2): 123–140.

Ladd, G.W., 2017. School bullying linked to lower academic achievement, research finds. American Psychology Association.   Retrieved April 23, 2019, from

Leahy, R.L. (2020). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for envy. Cognitive Therapy and Research.

Liem, A. D., and Y. Nie, 2008. Values, achievement goals, and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among Chinese and Indonesian secondary school students. International Journal of Psychology: Journal International De Psychologie43(5): 898–903.

Lipson, S. K., S. Zhou, B. Wagner III, K. Beck, and D. Eisenberg, 2016. Major differences: Variations in undergraduate and graduate student mental health and treatment utilization across academic disciplines. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 30(1), 23-41.

Maddux, J., and R. Rogers,1983. Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 469-479.

Malhotra, N. K., 2020. Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation. Seventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Manstead, A.S.R., 2018. The psychology of social class: How socioeconomic status impacts thought, feelings, and behavior. British Journal of Social Psychology, 57, 267–291.

MacKinnon, D. P., C.M. Lockwood, and J. Williams, 2004. Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128.

Mellers, B.A., and A.P. McGraw, 2001. Anticipated emotions as guides to choice. Current Direction in Psychological Science, 10 (6), 210-214.

Merchán-Clavellino, A., J.R. Alameda-Bailén, A. Z. García, and R. Guil, 2019. Mediating effect of trait emotional intelligence between the behavioral activation system (BAS)/Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Positive and Negative Affect. Frontiers on Psychology,  10: 424.

Miočević, M., O. Gonzalez, M.J. Valente, and D.P. MacKinnon, 2018. A tutorial in Bayesian potential outcomes mediation analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 25(1), 121–136.

Moussaıd, M., J.E. Kammer, P.P. Analytis, and H. Neth, 2013. Social influence and the collective dynamics of opinion formation. PLoS ONE, 8(11): e78433.

Munroe, P.T., 2019. Cognitive balance theory. In G. Ritzer and C. Rojek (Eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology (pp. 1-3). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Murayama, K., A.J. Elliot, and S. Yamagata, 2011. Separation of performance-approach and performance-avoidance achievement goals: A broader analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(1), 238-256.

Nicholls, J.G.,1984. Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91(3), 328–346.

Passafaro, P., S. Livi, and A. Kosic, 2019. Local norms and the theory of planned behavior: Understanding the effects of spatial proximity on recycling intentions and self-reported behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 744.

Pintrich, P. R., D. A. F., Smith, T. Garcia, and W. J. McKeachie, 1991. A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Sponsored by National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, Ann Arbor, MI.   Retrieved March 12, 2019, from

Posselt, J. R., and S.K. Lipson, 2016. Competition, Anxiety, and Depression in the College Classroom: Variations by Student Identity and Field Study. Journal of Colege Student Development, 57(8), 973–989.

Preacher, K. J., and A.F. Hayes, 2004. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36(4), 717–731.

Putarek, V., and N. Pavlin-Bernardić, 2020. The role of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, achievement goals, and engagement in academic cheating. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 35.

Ratsameemonthon, L., 2015. Achievement goal questionnaire-revised for Thai college students and Asian context. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 13 (2), 369-386.

Reb, J., and T. Connoly, 2007. Possession, feelings of ownership, and the endowment effect. (2007). Judgment and Decision Making. 2, (2), 107-114. Retrieved from

Ramberg, J., and B. Modin, 2019. School effectiveness and student cheating: Do students’ grades and moral standards matter for this relationship?. Social Psychology of Education, 22: 517–538.

Rosas, J.S., 2015. Validation of the achievement goal questionnaire – Revised in Argentinean university students (A-AGQ-R). International Journal of Psychology Research, 8(1), 10-23.

Ryan, R. M., and E.L.  Deci, 2017. Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Schneider, C. R., L. Zaval, E.U. Weber, and E.M. Markowitz, 2017. The influence of anticipated pride and guilt on pro-environmental decision making. PLoS ONE, 12(11), Article e0188781.

Schunk, D. H., and F. Pajares, 2009. Self-efficacy theory. In K. R. Wenzel, and  A. Wigfield (Eds.), Educational Psychology Handbook Series. Handbook of Motivation at School (pp. 35-53). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group.

Seifert, K., and R. Sutton, 2009. Educational Psychology. Second Edition.   Retrieved March 22, 2019, from

Simamora, B., 2016. Achievement as gift and prestige: Formulating anticipated emotions of others as new determinant of consumers’ motivation. ASEAN Marketing Journal, 8 (1), 29-53.

Sun, W., 2019. Toward a theory of ethical consumer intention formation: Re-extending the theory of planned behavior. AMS Review.

Tamir, M., and Y.E. Bigman, 2018. Expectations influence how emotions shape behavior. Emotion, 18(1): 15–25.

Thøgersen, J., 2006. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26(4):247-261.

Van der Schalk, J., T. Kuppens, M. Bruder, and A. S. R. Manstead, 2015. The social power of regret: The effect of social appraisal and anticipated emotions on fair and unfair allocations in resource dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 144(1): 151-157.

Van de Ven, N., and M. Zeelenberg, 2020. Envy and social comparison. In J. Suls, R. Collins, & L. Wheeler (Eds.), Social Comparison in Judgment and Behavior (pp. 223-247). Oxford University.

Van Yperen, N.W., 2006. A novel approach to assessing achievement goals in the context of the 2 × 2 framework: Identifying distinct profiles of individuals with different dominant achievement goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32 (11), 1432 – 1445,

Volz, K. G., and R. Hertwig, 2016. Emotions and decisions: Beyond conceptual vagueness and the rationality muddle. Perspectives on Psychological Science11(1), 101–116.

Wang, S., S.O. Lilienfeld, and R. Philippe, 2019. Schadenfreude deconstructed and reconstructed: A tripartite motivational model. New Ideas in Psychology. 52: 1–11. https://

Westcott, R., K. Ronan, H. Bambrick, and M. Taylor, 2017. Expanding protection motivation theory: investigating an application to animal owners and emergency responders in bushfire emergencies. BMC psychology5(1), 13.

Zeelenberg, M., 2018. Anticipated regret: A prospective emotion about the future past. In G. Oettingen, A. T. Sevincer, and P. Gollwitzer (Eds.), The Psychology of Thinking about the Future (pp. 276–295). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Zhao, X., J.G. Lynch, Jr., and Q. Chen, 2010. Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(2), 197–206.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.