Apakah Hasangapon, Hagabeon, dan Hamoraon sebagai Faktor Protektif atau Faktor Risiko Perilaku Bunuh Diri Remaja Batak Toba? Sebuah Kajian Teoritis tentang Nilai Budaya Batak Toba

https://doi.org/10.22146/buletinpsikologi.28489

Tience Debora Valentina(1*), Wisjnu Martani(2)

(1) Universitas Udayana
(2) Fakultas Psikologi UGM
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The phrase "Anakhonki do hamoraon in ahu" which means children are parents' treasure,
illustrating how precious the children are in Batak Toba family. The perspective of people of
Batak Toba, the system of cultural values become the goal and the way of life that passed
down from generation to generation that is wealthy (hamoraon), having descendants
(hagabeon) and honor (hasangapon). However, along with the high competition of people
today, the influence of disposition of personality and low cognitive ability, Batak Toba
culture values can be motivating values that encourage Batak Toba teenagers to achieve
excelence, as well as the source of pressures that trigger suicidal behavior when the
expectations of parents can not be fulfilled.


Keywords


hasangapon; hamoraon; hagabeon; suicidal behavior

Full Text:

PDF


References

Ang, R. P., & Huan, V. S. (2006). Relation­ship between academic stress and suicidal ideation: Testing for depression as a mediator using multiple regression. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37(2), 133–143. doi: 10.1007/s10578-006-0023-8.


Barni, D., Ranieri, S., Scabini, E., & Rosnati, R. (2011). Value transmission in the family: Do adolescents accept the values their parents want to transmit? Journal of Moral Education, 40(1), 105–121. doi: 10.1080/03057240. 2011.553797.


Baumrind, D. (1996). The discipline controversy revisited. Family Relations, 45(4), 405. doi: 10.2307/585170.


Bazrafshan, M.-R., Sharif, F., Molazem, Z., & Mani, A. (2016). Exploring the risk factors contributing to suicide attempt among adolescents: A qualitative study. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 21(1), 93–99. doi: 10.4103/1735-9066.174747.


Braga, W. C. (2013). Youth suicide risk assessment: Process and model. Dalam Garfinkel, B & Northrup, G, (Eds.) Adolescent suicide: Recognition, treatment and prevention. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.


Brighouse, H., & Swift, A. (2014). Family values. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Chu, J. P., Goldblum, P., Floyd, R., & Bongar, B. (2010). The cultural theory and model of suicide. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 14(1), 25–40. doi: 10.1016/j.appsy.2011.11.001.


Donath, C., Graessel, E., Baier, D., Bleich, S., & Hillemacher, T. (2014). Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents? BMC Pediatrics, 14(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-113.


Eaton, D. K., Foti, K., Brener, N. D., Crosby, A. E., Flores, G., & Kann, L. (2011). Associations between risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: Do racial/ethnic variations in associations account for increased risk of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/ Latina 9th- to 12th-grade female students? Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research, 15(2), 113–126. doi: 10.1080/ 13811118.2011.565268.


Gardiner, H. W., & Kosmitzki, C. (2002). Lives across cultures: Cross-cultural human development. Allyn and Bacon.


Garg, R., Levin, E., Urajnik, D., & Kauppi, C. (2005). Parenting style and academic achievement for East Indian and Cana­dian adolescents. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(4), 653–661.


Grunebaum, M. F., Galfalvy, H. C., Mortenson, L. Y., Burke, A. K., Oquendo, M. A., & Mann, J. J. (2010). Attachment and social adjustment: relationships to suicide attempt and major depressive episode in a prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123(1–3), 123–130. doi: 10.1016/ j.jad.2009.09.010.


Gureje, O., Oladeji, B., Hwang, I., Chiu, W. T., Kessler, R. C., Sampson, N. A., … Nock, M. K. (2011). Parental psycho­pathology and the risk of suicidal behavior in their offspring: Results from the World Mental Health surveys. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(12), 1221–1233. doi: 10.1038/mp.2010.111.


Irmawati. (2002). Motivasi berprestasi dan pola pengasuhan pada suku bangsa Batak Toba di Desa Parparean II dan suku bangsa Melayu di Desa Bogak (studi etnopsikologi). Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta. Retrieved from http://lib.ui.ac.id/ file?file=pdf/abstrak- 20342483.pdf tanggal 1 Mei 2017.


Irmawati. (2007). Keberhasilan suku Batak Toba (Tinjauan Psikologi Ulayat). Disampaikan pada Seminar Psikologi dan Budaya, 24 Maret 2007. Program Studi Psikologi Fakultas Kedokteran Univer­sitas Sumatera Utara.


Karaman, D., & Durukan, I. (2013). Suicide in children and adolescents. Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 5(1), 30. doi: 10.5455/ cap.20130503.


Kim, E., & Lee, M. (2013). The reciprocal longitudinal relationship between the parent-adolescent relationship and academic stress in Korea. Social Behavior and Personality, 41(9), 1519–1532. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2013.41.9.1519.


Kokkevi, A., Richardson, C., Olszewski, D., Matias, J., Monshouwer, K., & Bjarnason, T. (2012). Multiple substance use and self-reported suicide attempts by adolescents in 16 European countries. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 21(8), 443–450. doi: 10.1007/ s00787-012-0276-7.


Kompas. (2016, September 8). Kesehatan jiwa. Setiap jam, satu orang bunuh diri.
Leeson, P., Ciarrochi, J., & C.L. Heaven, P. (2008). Cognitive ability, personality, and academic performance in adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 630–635. doi: 10.1016/ j.paid.2008.07.006.


Lemogne C., Fossati P., Limosin F., Nabi H., Encrenaz G., Bonenfant S., & Consoli S. M. (2011). Cognitive hostility and suicide. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 124(1), 62–69. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2010.01658.x.


Lipps, G., Lowe, G. A., Gibson, R. C., Halliday, S., Morris, A., Clarke, N., & Wilson, R. N. (2012). Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 6(1), 31. doi: 10.1186/ 1753-2000-6-31.


Martínez, I., & García, J. F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43(169), 13–29.
Masud, H., Thurasamy, R., & Ahmad, M. S. (2015). Parenting styles and academic achievement of young adolescents: A systematic literature review. Quality & Quantity, 49(6), 2411–2433. doi: 10.1007/ s11135-014-0120-x.


Mathew, A., & Nanoo, S. (2013). Psychosocial stressors and patterns of coping in adolescent suicide attempters. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 35(1), 39–46. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.112200.
Medina, C., & Luna, G. (2006). Suicide attempts among adolescent Mexican American students enrolled in special education classes. Adolescence, 41(162), 299–312.


Nauly, M., & Fransisca, V. (2015). Identitas budaya pada mahasiswa Batak Toba yang kuliah di Medan. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat: Indonesian Journal of Indigenous Psychology, 2(1), 364–380. doi: 10.24854/ jpu12015-32.


Nicolson, D., & Ayers, H. (2004). Adolescent problems. A practical guide for parents, teachers and counsellors (Revised Edition). London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd.


Rudy, D., & Grusec, J. E. (2001). Correlates of authoritarian parenting in indivi­dualist and collectivist cultures and implications for understanding the transmission of values. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(2), 202–212.


Schwartz, S. H., & Bardi, A. (2001). Value hierarchies across cultures: Taking a similarities perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(3), 268–290.


Siagian, T. (2017). Apa ukuran sukses orang Batak? Retrieved from: http:// batakgaul.com/batak-kali/apa-ukuran-sukses-orang-batak-1141-1.html tanggal 2 Maret 2017.


Siallagan. (2017). Mahasiswa Polmed gantung diri setelah kirim SMS Bahasa Batak. Retrieved from: http:// batakgaul.com/news/mahasiswa-polmed-gantung-diri-setelah-kirim-sms-bahasa-batak-928-1.html tanggal 8 April 2017.


Simanjuntak, B. A. (2009). Konflik status dan kekuasaan Orang Batak Toba- Bagian Sejarah Batak. (Edisi Revisi). Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.
Simanjuntak, M. (2008). Perilaku remaja putri dalam menghadapi menarche sesuai dengan nilai dan budaya keluarga Batak di Jakarta: studi Grounded Theory. (Unpublished Theses). Program Pascasarjana Fakultas Ilmu Keperawatan Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta.


Simbolon, C. J., & Siregar, R. H. (2014). Nilai hagabeon dan upaya memperoleh keturunan pada pasangan Batak Toba yang infertil. Psikologia: Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Psikologi, 9(1).


Smith, P. B., & Schwartz, S. H. (1997). Values. Dalam Berry, J. W, Segall, M. H, dan Kagitcibasi, C (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology. Volume 3. Social behavior and applications. (Second edition, Vol. 3). United States of America: Allyn & Bacon.


Sukhawaha, S., Arunpongpaisal, S., & Rungreangkulkij, S. (2016). Attempted sucide triggers in Thai adolescent perspectives. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 30, 334–341.


Tribun Medan. (2016, Desember). Mahasiswa Teknik bunuh diri, warga dan pemilik kos berang: Bikin malu saja, bunuh diri kok di sini. Tribun Medan. Retrieved from: http://medan.tribunnews.com/2016/12/06/mahasiswa-teknik-bunuh-diri-warga-dan-pemilik-kos-berang-bikin-malu-saja-bunuh-diri-kok-di-sini tanggal 1 Mei 2017.


Valentina, T. D., & Helmi, A. F. (2016). Ketidakberdayaan dan perilaku bunuh diri: Meta-analisis. Buletin Psikologi, 24(2), 123–135.


Webb, N. B. (Ed.). (2001). Culturally diverse parent-child and family relationships: a guide for social workers and other practitioners. New York: Columbia University Press.


Whaley, A. L., & Noel, L. T. (2013). Academic achievement and behavioral health among Asian American and African American adolescents: testing the model minority and inferior minority assumptions. Social Psychology of Education, 16(1), 23–43. doi: 10.1007/ s11218-012-9206-2.


WHO. (2017). WHO: Suicide data. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mental_ health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en/ tanggal 1 Mei 2017.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/buletinpsikologi.28489

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 357 | views : 286

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Buletin Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Abstracted/Indexed by:

                            
Web
Analytics Made Easy - StatCounter View My Stats

 Publish by Faculty of Psychology Universitas Gadjah Mada
Street. Sosio Humaniora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55781
Room UP4; Building A 2nd Floor Telp. +6285647423975 (WhatsApp Only); +62274-550435 (Call); +62274 550436 (Fax)
email:buletinpsikologi@ugm.ac.id | http://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/buletinpsikologi


Creative Commons License
Copyright of Buletin Psikologi ISSN 2528-5858 (Online) ISSN 0854-7106 (Print)