Body Shame dan Gangguan Makan Kajian Meta-Analisis

Lisya - Chairani(1*)

(*) Corresponding Author


The number of person with eating disorders are increasing almost all over the world. The
exact cause of eating disorder is difficult to determine. Feeling of shame caused by negative
judgments on one’s body has positive correlation to the emergence of pathological eating
behavior. Furthermore the position of body shame as a variable in research on eating
disorders is still inconsistent in some studies, consequently it is placed as a mediating
variable to self-objectification. This study attempted to see whether there is a direct
correlation between body shame and eating disorders using meta-analysis procedure. The
analysis of sampling error and measurement error made on 34 studies from 21 articles. The
result of the analysis showed that body shame and eating disorder are strongly correlated
(r=0.547) with α = 0.05.


body shame; eating disorder, meta-analysis

Full Text:



Andrews, B., Qian, M., & Valentine, J.D. (2002). Predicting depressive symptoms with a new measure of shame: The experience of shame scale. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 29–42. Arcelus, J., Mitchell, A. J., & Wales, J. (2011). Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(7), 724- 731. *Augustus-Horvath, C.L. and Tylka, T.L. (2009). A test and extension of objectification theory as it predicts disordered eating: does women’s age matter?. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 56, No. 2, 253–265. doi: 10.1037/a0014637. Bedford, O.A., & Hwang K. K. (2003). Guilt And Shame In Chinese Cultural: A Cross-Cultural Framework From The Perspective Of Morality and Identity. Journal For The Theory Of Social Behaviour, 33, 127-144. Blowers, L. C., Loxton, N. J., Grady-Flesser, M., Occhipinti, S., & Dawe, S. (2003). The relationship between sociocultural pressure to be thin and body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls. Eating Behaviours, 4(3), 229-244: doi:10.1016/S1471-0153(03)00018-7. Brunch, H. (1973). Eating disorders: obesity, anorexia nervosa and the person within. New York: Basic Books. Calogero, R. M., Davis, W. N., & Thompson, J. K. (2005). The role of self-objectification in the experience of women with eating disorders. Sex Roles, 52, 43-50. *Calogero. R.M. (2009). Objectification processes and disordered eating in british women and men. Journal of Health Psychology, 14(3), 394–402. doi: 10.1177/1359105309102192. Card, N.A., (2012). Applied Meta-Analysis for Social Science Research. New York: The Guildford Press. Chairani, L., Wahyuni, S., & Priyadi, S. (2015). Memahami Malu Sebagai Fungsi Kontrol: Kajian Integrasi Islam Dan Biopsikologi. Laporan Penelitian. Tidak Diterbitkan. Pekanbaru: LPPM UIN Suska Riau. *Claudat. K.B. (2015). Objectification theory and eating pathology in latina college students: testing a culture-specific model (Doctor's dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI. No.3730321). *Choma, B.L., Shove, C., Busseri, M.A., Sadava, s.w., & Hosker., A. (2009). Assesing the role of body image coping strategies as mediators or moderators of the links between self-objectification, body shame, and well-being. Sex Roles, 61: 699-713. doi: 10.1007/S11199-009-9666-9. *Dakalis, A., Carra, G., Timko, A., Volpato, C., Pla-Sanjuanelo, J., Zanetti, A., Clerici, M & Riva, G. (2015). Mechanism of influence of body checking on binge eating. international journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 15, 93-104. doi: 10.1016/j.ijchp.2015.03.003. *Doran, J & Lewis. C.A. (2012). Components of shame and eating disturbance among clinical and non‐clinical populations. Eur. Eat. Disorders Rev, 20 265–270. doi: 10.1002/erv.1142. *Duarte, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J., Ferreira, C and Batista, D. (2014). Body Image as a source of shame: a new measure for the assessment of the multifaceted nature of body Image shame. Clin. Psychol. Psychotherapy, 22, 656–666. doi: 10.1002/cpp.1925. *Duarte, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J. & Ferreira, C. (2014). Escaping from body image shame and harsh self-criticism: exploration of underlying mechanisms of binge eating. Eating Behaviors, 15, 638–643. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.08.025. Ellis, P.D., (2010). The Essential Guide to Effect Size. Sta tistical Power, Meta-Analysis, and the Interpretation of Research Results. United Kingdom: Cambridge Univer- sity Press Frederickson, B.L & Robert, T.A. (1997). Objectification theory: toward understanding womens’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of women quarterly, 21, 173-206. Gee, A., & Troop, N. A. (2003). Shame, depressive symptoms and eating, weight and shape concerns in a non-clinical sample. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 8(1), 72-75. Gilbert, P., Pehl, J., & Allan, S. (1994). The phenomenology of shame and guilt: An empirical investigation. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 67, 23-36 DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8341.1994.tb01768.x. Gilbert, P. (1997). The evolution of social attractiveness and its role in shame, humiliation, guilt and therapy. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 70, 113–147. Goss, K.P., & Gilbert, P. (2002). Eating disorders, shame and pride: a cognitive-behavioural functional analysis. In P. Gilbert & J. Miles (Eds), Body shame: Conceptualization, research & treatment (pp. 219–255). Hove, UK: Brunner-Routledge. Goss, K., & Allan, S. (2009). Shame, pride and eating disorders. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 16, 303-16. doi:10.1002/cpp.627. Grabe, S., Ward, L.M & Hyde, J.S. (2008). The role of media in body image concern among women/; a meta-analytic of experimental and correlational study. Psychological bulletin, 2008, Vol. 134, No. 3, 460-476. Grabhorn, R., Hanna Stenner, Ullrich Stangier. (2006). Social Anxiety in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa: The Mediating Role of Shame .Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 13, 12–19 Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI: 10.1002/cpp.463 Greenfield, S. F., Gordon, S. M., Cohen, L., & Trucco, E. (2010). Eating disorders in patients with substance use disorders: Bulimia, anorexia, overeating disorder, and obesity. In E. V. Nunes, J. Selzer, P. Levounis, C. A. Davies, E. V. Nunes, J. Selzer, ... C. A. Davies (Eds.), Substance Dependence and Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders: Best Practices for Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 1-34). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute. Groesz, L.M., Levine, M.P & Murnen, S.K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: a meta-analysic review. Intl J Eat Disord, Jan, 31(1): 1-16. *Hallsworth, L., Wade, T & Tiggemann, M. (2005). Individual differences in male body-image: an examination of self-objectification in recreational body builders. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 453–465. doi: 10.1348/135910705X26966. Harrop, E. N., & Marlatt, G. (2010). The comorbidity of substance use disorders and eating disorders in women: Prevalence, etiology, and treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 392-398. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.12.016. Hay, PJ, & Mond, J. (2005). How to count the cost and measure burden? A review of health-related quality of life in eating disorders. Journal of Mental Health, 14, 539- 552. Hay PJ, Mond J, Buttner P, Darby A. (2008). Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia. PloS One 2008; 3(2): e1541. *Higgins, M.K. (2011). Testing moderation and mediation models of the relationships between self-objectification and disordered eating and risky sexual behaviors (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI. No.1513038). *Higgins, M.K., Lin, S.L., Alvarez, A & Bardone-Cone, A.M. (2015). Examining impulsivity as a moderator of the relationship between body shame and bulimic symptoms in black and white young women. Body Image, 14, 39–46. Hoek HW. Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2006; 19(4): 389-394. Hunter, J.E., & Schmidt, F.L., (2004). Methods of Meta -Analysis. Correcting Error and Bias in Research Finding. Second Edition. USA: Sage Publications, Inc. *Iannaccone, M., D'Olimpio, F., Cella, S. & Cotrufo, P. (2016). Self-esteem, body shame and eating disorder risk in obese and normal weight adolescents: a mediation model. Eating Behaviors, 21, 80–83. Kartz, B. (2014). Gender and disordered eating of adolescents in Israel. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 5(2), 137–144. Keel, P.K., & Klump, K. L. (2003). Are eating disorders culture-bound syndromes? Implications for conceptualizing their etiology. Psychol Bull. 2003 Sep;129(5):747-69. . DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.747. *Keith, L., Gillanders, D & Simpson, S. (2009). An exploration of the main sources of shame in an eating-disordered population. Clin. Psychol. Psychother, 16, 317–327. doi: 10.1002/cpp.629. *Kessler, K.L. (2010). Self-objectification, body image, eating behaviors, and exercise dependence among college females (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI. No.1487268). *Ko, N. (2010). The role of body shame, social appearance anxiety, and body checking behavior on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors: a cross-cultural study in Germany and Korea. Dissertation Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Wirtschafts- und Verhaltenswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. i. Br. *Liss, M & Erchull. M.J. (2015). Not hating what you see: Self-compassion may protect against negative mental health variables connected to self-objectification in college women. Body Image, 14, 5–12. doi: /10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.02.006 1740-1445. *Mason, T.B. & Lewis. R.J. (2016). Minority stress, body shame, and binge eating among lesbian women: social anxiety as a linking mechanism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(3), 428-440. doi: 10.1177/0361684316635529. Masheb, R.M., Grilo, C.M., & Brondolo, E. (1999). Shame and its psychopathologic correlates in two women’s health problems: Binge eating disorder and vulvodynia. Journal of Eating & Weight Disorder, 4, 817–193. McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The objectified body consciousness scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181-215. Mitchell, J. E., Myers, T., Crosby, R., O’Neill, G.O., Carlisle, J., & Gerlach, S. (2009). Health care utilization in patients with eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(6), 571-574. Murray, C., Waller, G., & Legg, C. (2000). Family dysfunction and bulimic psychopathology: The mediating role of shame. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 28(1), 84-9. *Mustapic, J., Marcinko, D & Vargek. P. (2016). Body shame and disordered eating in adolescents. Curr Psychol. Doi: 10.1007/s12144-016-9433-3. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Hannan, P. J., Story, M., & Perry, C. L. (2004). Weight-control behaviors among adolescent girls and boys: implications for dietary intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104(6), 913–920. *Noll, S.M. & Fredrickson, B.L. (1998). A mediational model linking self-objectification, body shame, and disordered eating. Psychology of women quarterly, 22, 623-636. O'Brien, K., & Vincent, N. (2003). Psychiatric comorbidity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: nature, prevalence, and causal relationships. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(1), 57-74. Oluyori, T. (2013). A systematic review of qualitative studies on shame, guilt and eating disorders. Counselling psychology review. December 2013. Vol 28. No. 4. Pearlstein, T. (2002). Eating disorders and comorbidity. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 4, 67-78. doi:10.1007/s007370200002. Sansone, R. A., & Sansone, L. A. (1994). Bulimia nervosa: Medical complications. In L. Alexander-Mott, D. Lumsden, L. Alexander-Mott, D. Lumsden (Eds.). Understanding eating disorders: Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and obesity (pp. 181-201). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis. *Silva, A.R.C. (2013). Evaluating the effect of body dissatisfaction and body shame on eating psychopathology in young adolescence: The role of cognitive fusion, experiential avoidance and fear of self-compassion. (Dissertation). Universidade de Coimbra Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação. Simon, J., Schmidt, U., & Pilling, S. (2005). The health service use and cost of eating disorders. Psychological Medicine, 35(11), 1543-1551. Sanftner, J.L., & Crowther, J.H. (1998). Variability in self- esteem, moods, shame and guilt to eating disorder symptomatology. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychol- ogy, 14, 315–324. *Slater, A & Tiggemann, M. (2010). Body image and disordered eating in adolescent girls and boys: a test of objectification theory. Sex Roles, 63: 42-49. doi: 10.1007/s11199-010-9794-2. Swan, S., & Andrews, B. (2003). The relationship between shame, eating disorders and disclosure in treatment. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 367-78. doi:10.1348/014466503322528919 Tangney, J.P., & Dearing, R.L. (2002). Shame And Guilt. New York: The Guilford Press. Troop, N. A., Allan, S., Serpell, L., & Treasure, J. L. (2008). Shame in women with a history of eating disorders. European Eating Disorders Review, 16, 480-488. doi:10.1002/erv. Tylka, T. L., & Hill, S. (2004). Objectification theory as it relates to disordered eating among college women. Sex Roles, 51, 719– 730. doi:10.1007/s11199-004-0721-2. You, Y, G. (1997). Shame And Guilt Mechanism In East Asian Culture. The Journal Of Pastoral Care, 51 (1). Vargas, E. (2015). Body-Shaming: What Is It & Why Do We Do It?. pada tanggal 16/2/2017


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 48 | views : 20


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Buletin Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Abstracted/Indexed by:

Analytics Made Easy - StatCounter View My Stats

 Publish by Faculty of Psychology Universitas Gadjah Mada
Street. Sosio Humaniora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55781
Room UP4; Building A 2nd Floor Telp. +6285647423975 (WhatsApp Only); +62274-550435 (Call); +62274 550436 (Fax) |

Creative Commons License
Copyright of Buletin Psikologi ISSN 2528-5858 (Online) ISSN 0854-7106 (Print)