A report of two cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): happy and longevity

https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci005404202211

Hemi Sinorita(1*), Sri Sutarni(2), Abdul Gofir(3)

(1) Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta
(2) Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta,
(3) Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta,
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Chronic hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with the development of complications and the increase of risk of mortality. Patients with T2DM have a shorter life expectancy than non-diabetic population. It is attributed to cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal disease, and infection. Depression secondary to T2DM worsens the quality of life. On the contrary, positive emotions correlated strongly with long life expectancy. A number of mechanisms might explain this correlation. We reported two geriatric patients over 80 y.o. with T2DM comorbidity for more than 20 years. Discussion point of these cases is the subject’s longer life span compared to the average diabetic patient’s life expectancy and great quality of life despite the disease burden of chronic hyperglycemia in T2DM and cardiovascular risk.

Keywords


chronic hyperglycemia; type 2 diabetes; life expectancy; life quality; risk factor

Full Text:

PDF


References

World Health Organization. Global report on diabetes. 2016; 1-88. Available from: http://apps.who.int/ iris/bitstream/handle/10665/204871/9789241565257_eng.pdf;jsessionid= DE86065D8957A520439F6D8228C79DA1/sequence=1.
2.Rangel EB, Rodrigues CO, de Sá JR. Micro- and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: preclinical and clinical studies. J Diabetes Res 2019; 2019:2161085.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2161085
3.Volpe CMO, Delfino PHV, Anjos PMFD, Nogueira-Machado JA. Cellular death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and diabetic complications. Cell Death Dis 2018; 9(2):119.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-017-0135-z
4.Wendt T, Bucciarelli L, Qu W, Lu Y, Yan SF, Stern DM, et al. Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and vascular inflammation: insights into the pathogenesis of macrovascular complications in diabetes. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2002; 4(3):228-37.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-002-0024-4
5.Leal J, Gray AM, Clarke PM. Development of life-expectancy tables for people with type 2 diabetes. Eur Heart J 2009; 30(7):834-9.
https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn567
6.An Y, Zhang P, Wang J, Gong Q, Gregg EW, Yang W, et al. Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality over a 23-year period among chinese with newly diagnosed diabetes in the da qing IGT and diabetes study. Diabetes Care 2015; 38(7):1365-71.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-2498
7.Röckl S, Brinks R, Baumert J, Paprott R, Du Y, Heidemann C, et al. All cause mortality in adults with and without type 2 diabetes: findings from the national health monitoring in Germany, BMJ Open Diab Res Care 2017; 5(1):e000451.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2017-000451
8.Fisher L, Hessler DM, Polonsky WH, Mullan J. When is diabetes distress clinically meaningful? Establishing cut points for the Diabetes Distress Scale. Diabetes Care 2012; 35(2):259-64.
https://doi.org/0.2337/dc11-1572
9.Beck J, Greenwood DA, Blanton L, Bolinger ST, Butcher MK, Condon JE, et al. 2017 National standards for diabetes self-management education and support. Diabetes Care 2017; 40(10):1409-19.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dci17-0025
10.American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2020. Diabetes Care 2020; 43(Suppl 1):S1-S2.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-SINT
11.Katon WJ, Lin EHB, Von Korff M, Ciechanowski P, Ludman EL, Young B, et al. Collaborative care for patients with depression and chronic illnesses. N Engl J Med 2010; 363(27):2611-20.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1003955
12.Lawrence EM, Rogers RG, Wadsworth T. Happiness and longevity in the United States. Soc Sci Med 2015; 145:115-9.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.09.020
13.Willroth EC, Ong AD, Graham EK, Mroczek DK. Being happy and becoming happier as independent predictors of physical health and mortality. Psychosomc Med 2020: 82(7):650-7.
https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000832
14.Sikdar KC, Wang PP, MacDonald D, Gadag VG. Diabetes and its impact on health-related quality of life: a life table analysis. Qual Life Res 2010; 19(6):781-7.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9641-5
15.Bardenheier BH, Lin J, Zhuo X, Ali MK, Thompson TJ, Cheng YJ, et al. Disability-free life-years lost among adults aged 50 years with and without diabetes. Diabetes Care 2016; 39(7):1222-9.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-1095
16.Muschik D, Tetzlaff J, Lange K, Epping J, Eberhard S, Geyer S. Change in life expectancy with type 2 diabetes: a study using claims data from lower Saxony, Germany. Population Health Metrics 2017; 15(1):5.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-017-0124-6
17.Jing X, Chen J, Dong Y, Han D, Zhao H, Wang X, et al. Related factors of quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Health and Qual Life Outcomes 2018; 16(1):189.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-1021-9
18.Loukine L, Waters C, Choi BCK, Ellison J. Impact of diabetes mellitus on life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy in Canada. Popul Health Metr 2012; 10(1):7.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7954-10-7
19.Dale AC, Nilsen TI, Vatten L, Midthjell K, Wiseth R. Diabetes mellitus and risk of fatal ischaemic heart disease by gender: 18 years follow up of 74 914 individuals in the HUNT 1 Study. Eur Heart J 2007; 28(23):2924-9.
https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehm447
20.Dale AC, Midthjell K, Nilsen TI, Wiseth R, Vatten LJ. Glycaemic control in newly diagnosed diabetes patients and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: 20-year follow-up of the HUNT Study in Norway. Eur Heart J 2009; 30(11):1372-7.
https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehp039
21.Leal J, Gray AM, Clarke PM. Development of life-expectancy tables for people with type 2 diabetes. Eur Heart J 2009; 30(7):834-9.
https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn567
22.Tachkov K, Mitov K, Koleva Y, Mitkova Z, Kamusheva M, Dimitrova M, et al. Life expectancy and survival analysis of patients with diabetes compared to the non diabetic population in Bulgaria. PLoS One 2020; 15(5):e0232815.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232815
23.Loacara S, Sava E, Georgescu O, Sirbu A, Fica S. Recent diabetes-related mortality trends in Romania. Acta Diabetol 2018; 55(8):821-6.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-018-1156-5
24.World Health Statistics 2019: Monitoring health for the SDGs–World Health Organization. 2019; 1-132.
Available from: https://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2019/en/
25.Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000; 321(7258):405-12.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.321.7258.405
26.Laiteerapong N, Ham SA, Gao Y, Moffet HH, Liu JY, Huang EA, et al. The legacy effect in type 2 diabetes: impact of early glycemic control on future complications (the diabetes & aging study). Diabetes Care 2019; 42(3):416-26.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc17-1144
27.Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil AW. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 359(15):1577-89.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0806470
28.Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cul CA, et al. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000; 321(7258):412-9.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.321.7258.412
29.Emdin CA, Rahimi K, Neal B, Callender C, Perkovic V, Patel A. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. JAMA 2015; 313(6):603-15.
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.18574
30.Brunström M, Carlberg. B. Effect of antihypertensive treatment at different blood pressure levels in patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ 2016; 352:i717.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i717
31.Xie X, Atkins E, Lv J, Bennett A, Neal B, Ninomiya T, et al. Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular and renal outcomes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2016; 387(10017):435-43.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00805-3
32.Mihaylova B, Emberson J, Blackwell L, Keech A, Simes J, Barnes EH, et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta-analysis of individual data from 27 randomized trials. Lancet 2012; 380(9841):581-90.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60367-5
33.Hedayatnia M, Asadi Z, Zare-Feyzabadi R, Khorasani MY, Ghazizadeh H, Zirak RG, et al. Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk among the MASHAD study population. Lipids Health Dis 2020; 19(1):42.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01204-y
34.Pastors JG, Warshaw H, Daly A, Franz M, Kulkarni K. The evidence for the effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy in diabetes management. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(3):608-13.
https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.3.608
35.Poirier P, Giles TD, Bray GA, Hong Y, Stem JS, Pi-Sunyer FX, et al. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss an update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease From the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation 2006; 113(6):898-918.
https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.171016
36.Veenhoven R. Healthy happiness: effects of happiness on physical health and the consequences for preventive health care. J Happiness Stud 2008; 9(3):449-69.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9042-1
37.Farhud DD, Malmir M, Khanahmadi M. Happiness & health: the biological factors- systematic review srticle. Iran J Publ Health 2014; 43(11):1468-77.
38.Yang Y. Long and happy living: trends and patterns of happy life expectancy in the U.S., 1970-2000. Soc Sci Res 2008; 37(4):1235-52.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2007.07.004
39.Bartels M, Boomsma DI. Born to be happy? The etiology of subjective well-being. Behav Genet 2009; 39(6):605-15.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-009-9294-8
40.Fox E, Ridgewell A, Ashwin C. Looking on the bright side: biased attention and the human serotonin transporter gene. Proc Biol Sci 2009; 276(1663):1747-51.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1788
41.Neve JED. Functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with subjective well-being: evidence from a US nationally representative sample. J Hum Genet 2011; 56(6):456-9.
https://doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2011.39
42.Young SN, Leyton M. The role of serotonin in human mood and social interaction insight from altered tryptophan levels. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002; 71(4):857-65.
https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-3057(01)00670-0
43.Mitchell RLC, Phillips LH. The psychological, neurochemical and functional neuroanatomical mediators of the effects of positive and negative mood on executive functions. Neuropsychologia 2007; 45(4):617-29.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.06.030
44.Young SN. Acute tryptophan depletion in humans: a review of theoretical, practical and ethical aspects. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2013; 38(5):294-305.
https://doi.org/10.1503/jpn.120209
45.Baixauli E. Happiness: role of dopamine and serotonin on mood and negative emotions. Emerg Med (Los Angel) 2017; 7(2):350.
https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-7548.1000350
46.Berger M, Gray JA, Roth BL. The expanded biology of serotonin. Annu Rev Med 2009; 60:355-66.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.60.042307.110802
47.Lin SH, Lee LT, Yang YK. Serotonin and mental disorders: a concise review on molecular neuroimaging evidence. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2014; 12(3):196-202.
https://doi.org/10.9758/cpn.2014.12.3.196
48.Herr N, Bode C, Duerschmied D. The effect serotonin on immune cells. Front Cardiovasc Med 2017; 4:48.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2017.00048
49.Abbas AC, Al-Kraity WRH, Abbas EC. Effect antioxidant and serotonin level in the sera on type II diabetes mellitus males patients and compare with control group. Res J Pharm Tech 2019; 12(5):2453-2460.
https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00411.6



DOI: https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci005404202211

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 361 | views : 227




Copyright (c) 2022 Hemi Sinorita, Sri Sutarni, Abdul Gofir

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

 

Creative Commons License
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) by  Universitas Gadjah Mada is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/bik/.