Treatment options for Indonesian triple negative breast cancer patients: a literature review of current state and potentials for future improvement

https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci005201202009

Ibnu Purwanto(1*), Iwan Dwiprahasto(2), Teguh Aryandono(3), Sofia Mubarika(4)

(1) Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


 Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still associated with grave prognosis, especially compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Advances in medical science have improved our understanding on the biological nature and heterogeneity of TNBC, explaining the efficacy variability of existing chemotherapeutic drugs on TNBC patients. Complexity of TNBC has led to wide variation of TNBC treatment across the globe, resulting in unsatisfactory treatment outcome. This issue is further complicated by the absence of TNBC treatment guideline in many countries, including in Indonesia. This review discusses systemic treatment options for TNBC while taking account its molecular heterogeneity. Specific consideration is made for Indonesia, not only for current clinical practice, but also for future improvements. Immunotherapy, especially programmed cell death 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitor, has recently shown promising result in TNBC patients. It can be concluded that TNBC is heterogenous and treatment option should be tailored based on its molecular profile.


Keywords


Triple Negative; Breast Cancer, Indonesia; Treatment; immunotherapy;

Full Text:

pdf


References

  1. Morris GJ, Naidu S, Topham AK, Guiles F, Xu Y, McCue P, et al. Differences in breast carcinoma characteristics in newly diagnosed African–American and Caucasian patients: a single-institution compilation compared with the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Cancer 2007; 110(4):876-84. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22836
  2. Bauer KR, Brown M, Cress RD, Parise CA, Caggiano V. Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: a population-based study from the California cancer Registry. Cancer 2007; 109(9):1721-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22618
  3. Widodo I, Dwianingsih EK, Triningsih E, Utoro T, Soeripto. Clinicopathological features of indonesian breast cancers with different molecular subtypes. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014; 15(15):6109-13. https://doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.15.6109
  4. Sitohang F, Kurnianda J, Ghozali A, Widayati K, Purwanto I. Clinicopathological features and KI67 proliferation index in patients with non-metastatic triple negative breast cancer in Yogyakarta. China:20th CSCO Annual Meeting; Xiamen. 2017.
  5. Irvin WJ Jr, Carey LA. What is triple-negative breast cancer? Eur J Cancer 2008; 44(18):2799-805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.09.034
  6. FanY, Xu BH, Yuan P, Ma F, Wang JY, Ding XY, et al. Docetaxel-cisplatin might be superior to docetaxel-capecitabine in the first-line treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2013; 24(5):1219-25. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mds603
  7. Zhang J, Wang Z, Hu X, Wang B, Wang L, Yang W, et al. Cisplatin and gemcitabine as the first line therapy in metastatic triple negative breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2015; 136(1):204-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28966
  8. Staudacher L, Cottu PH, Diéras V, Vincent-Salomon A, Guilhaume MN, Escalup L,et al. Platinum-based chemotherapy in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: the Institut Curie experience. Ann Oncol2011; 22(4):848-56. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdq461
  9. Carey L, Winer E, Viale G, Cameron D, Gianni L. Triple-negative breast cancer: disease entity or title of convenience? Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2010; 7(12):683-92. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2010.154
  10. Hammond ME, Hayes DF, Dowsett M, Allred DC, Hagerty KL, Badve S, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer (unabridged version). Arch Pathol Lab Med 2010; 134(7):48-72. https://doi.org/10.1043/1543-2165-134.7.e48
  11. Perou CM, Sørlie T, Eisen MB, van de Rijn M, Jeffrey SS, Rees CA, et al. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature 2000; 406(6797):747-52. https://doi.org/10.1038/35021093
  12. SørlieT, Perou CM, Tibshirani R, Aas T, Geisler S, Johnsen H, et al. Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98(19):10869-74. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.191367098
  13. Parker JS, Mullins M, Cheang MC, Leung S, Voduc D, Vickery T,et al. Supervised risk predictor of breast cancer based on intrinsic subtypes. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27(8):1160-7. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.18.1370
  14. Prat A, Adamo B, Cheang MC, Anders CK, Carey LA, Perou CM. Molecular characterization of basal-like and non-basal-like triple-negative breast cancer. Oncologist 2013; 18(2):123-33. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0397
  15. Prat A, Cheang MC, Galván P, Nuciforo P, Paré L, Adamo B, et al. Prognostic value of intrinsic subtypes in hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer treated with letrozole with or without lapatinib. JAMA Oncol 2016; 2(10):1287-94. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.0922
  16. Lehmann BD, Jovanović B, ChenX, Estrada MV, Johnson KN, Shyr Y, et al. Refinement of triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtypes: implications for neoadjuvant chemotherapy selection. PLoS ONE 2016; 11(6):e0157368. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157368
  17. Prat A, Parker J, Karginova O, Fan C, Livasy C, Herschkowitz JI, et al. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 2010; 12(5):R68. https://doi.org/10.1186/bcr2635
  18. Lehmann BD, Bauer JA, Chen X, Sanders ME, Chakravarthy AB, Shyr Y,et al. Identification of human triple-negative breast cancer subtypes and preclinical models for selection of targeted therapies. J Clin Invest 2011; 121(7):2750-67. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI45014
  19. Masuda H, Baggerly KA, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Meric-Bernstam F, et al. Differential response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among 7 triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtypes. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19(19):5533-40. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0799
  20. Burstein MD, Tsimelzon A, Poage GM, Covington KR, Contreras A, Fuqua SA, et al. Comprehensive genomic analysis identifies novel subtypes and targets of triple-negative breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2015; 21(7):1688-98. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0432
  21. Yeh J, Chun J, Schwartz S, Wang A, Kern E, Guth AA, et al. Clinical characteristics in patients with triple negative breast cancer. Int J Breast Cancer 2017; 2017:1796145. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1796145
  22. Sadanandam A, Korlimarla A, Ragulan C, Prabhu J, Shankaranarayana H, Cheang M, et al. Indian triple-negative breast cancer – immune, molecular and clinical landscape. Ann Oncol 2017; 28(10).
  23. Gogoi G, Borgohain M, Saikia P, Fazal SA. Profile of molecular subtypes of breast cancer with special reference to triple negative: A study from Northeast India. Clin Cancer Investig J 2016; 5(5):374-83.
  24. Sharma M, Sharma JD, Sarma A, Ahmed S, Kataki AC, Saxena R, et al. Triple negative breast cancer in people of North East India: critical insights gained at a regional cancer centre. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev2014; 15(11):4507-11. https://doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.11.4507
  25. Sandhu GS, Erqou S, Patterson H, Mathew A. Prevalence of triple-negative breast cancer in India: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Oncol 2016; 2(6):412-21. https://doi.org/10.1200/JGO.2016.005397
  26. Ma KK, Chau WW, Wong CH, Wong K, Fung N, Lee AJ, et al. Triple negative status is a poor prognostic indicator in Chinese women with breast cancer: a ten year review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012; 13(5):2109-14. https://doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.5.2109
  27. Li CY, Zhang S, Zhang XB, Wang P, Hou GF, Zhang J. Clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of triple- negative breast cancer (TNBC) in Chinese patients: a retrospective study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(6):3779-84. https://doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.6.3779
  28. Gianni L, Baselga J, Eiermann W, Porta VG, Semiglazov V, Lluch A,et al. Phase III trial evaluating the addition of paclitaxel to doxorubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, as adjuvant or primary systemic therapy: European Cooperative Trial in Operable Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27(15):2474-81. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.19.2567
  29. Peto R, Davies C, Godwin J,Gray R, Pan HC, Clarke M, et al. Comparisons between different polychemotherapy regimens for early breast cancer: meta-analyses of long-term outcome among 100,000 women in 123 randomised trials. Lancet 2012; 379(9814):432-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61625-5
  30. Senkus E, Kyriakides S, Ohno S, Penault-Llorca F, Poortmans P, Rutgers E, et al.Primary breast cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines or diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 2015; 26(suppl 5):8-30. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv298.
  31. Sikov WM, Berry DA, Perou CM, Singh B, Cirrincione CT, Tolaney SM, et al. Impact of the addition of carboplatin and/or bevacizumab to neoadjuvant once-per-week paclitaxel followed by dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide on pathologic complete response rates in stage II to III triple-negative breast cancer: CALGB 40603 (Alliance). J Clin Oncol 2015; 33(1):13-21. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.57.0572
  32. Sikov WM, Berry DA, Perou CM, Singh B, Cirrincione CT, Tolaney SM, et al. Abstract S2-05: Event-free and overall survival following neoadjuvant weekly paclitaxel and dose-dense AC +/- carboplatin and/or bevacizumab in triple-negative breast cancer: Outcomes from CALGB 40603 (Alliance). Thirty-Eighth Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium: 2015 Dec 8-12. San Antonio.
  33. von Minckwitz G, Schneeweiss A,Loibl S, Salat C, Denkert C, Rezai M, et al. Neoadjuvant carboplatin in patients with triple-negative and HER2-positive early breast cancer (GeparSixto; GBG 66): a randomised phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15(7):747-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70160-3
  34. Isakoff SJ, Mayer EL, He L, Traina TA, Carey LA, Krag KJ et al. TBCRC009: a multicenter phase II clinical trial of platinum monotherapy with biomarker assessment in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2015; 33(17):1902-9. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.57.6660
  35. Zhang P, Yin Y, Mo H, Zhang B, Wang X, Li Q, et al. Better pathologic complete response and relapse-free survival after carboplatin plus paclitaxel compared with epirubicin plus paclitaxel as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer: a randomized phase 2 trial. Oncotarget 2016; 7(37):60647-56. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10607
  36. Hastak K, Alli E, Ford JM. Synergistic chemosensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer cell lines to poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase inhibition, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. Cancer Res 2010; 70(20):7970-80. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4521
  37. Byrski T, Gronwald J, Huzarski T, Grzybowska E, Budryk M, Stawicka M,et al. Pathologic complete response rates in young women with BRCA1-positive breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28(3):375-9. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.20.7019
  38. Atchley DP, Albarracin CT, Lopez A, Valero V, Amos CI, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, et al. Clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with BRCA-positive and BRCA-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26(26):4282-8. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.16.6231
  39. Rashid MU, Muhammad N, Bajwa S, Faisal S, Tahseen M, Bermejo JL, et al. High prevalence and predominance of BRCA1 germline mutations in Pakistani triple-negative breast cancer patients. BMC Cancer 2016; 16(1):673. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-016-2698-y.
  40. Carey LA, Perou CM, Livasy CA, Dressler LG, Cowan D, Conway K, et al. Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. JAMA 2006; 295(21):2492-502. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.295.21.2492
  41. Nanda R, Schumm LP, Cummings S, Fackenthal JD, Sveen L, Ademuyiwa F, et al. Genetic testing in an ethnically diverse cohort of high-risk women: a comparative analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in American families of European and African ancestry. JAMA 2005; 294(15):1925-33. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.294.15.1925
  42. Anwar SL, Haryono SJ, Aryandono T, Datasena IG. Screening of BRCA1/2 mutations using direct sequencing in Indonesian familial breast cancer cases. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(4):1987-91. https://doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.4.1987
  43. Purnomosari D, Pals G, Wahyono A, Aryandono T, Manuaba TW, Haryono SJ,et al. BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation analysis in the Indonesian population. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007; 106(2):297-304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-006-9493-4
  44. Szabo CI, King MC. Population genetics of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Am J Hum Genet 1997; 60(5):1013-20.
  45. Wen WX, Allen J, Lai KN, Mariapun S, Hasan SN, Ng PS, et al. Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an unselected multiethnic cohort of Asian patients with breast cancer and healthy controls from Malaysia. J Med Genet2018; 55(2):97-103. https://doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-104947
  46. Dantzer F, de La Rubia G, Menissier-De Murcia J, Hostomsky Z, de Murcia G, Schreiber V. Base excision repair is impaired in mammalian cells lacking poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Biochemistry 2000; 39(25):7559-69. https://doi.org/10.1021/bi0003442
  47. McCabe N, Turner NC, Lord CJ, Kluzek K, Bialkowska A, Swift S,et al. Deficiency in the repair of DNA damage by homologous recombination and sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition. Cancer Res 2006; 66(16):8109-15. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0140
  48. Tutt A, Ashworth A. The relationship between the roles of BRCA genes in DNA repair and cancer predisposition. Trends Mol Med 2012; 8(12):571-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1471-4914(02)02434-6
  49. Domagala P, Huzarski T, Lubinski J, Gugala K, Domagala W. Immunophenotypic predictive profiling of BRCA1-associated breast cancer. Virchows Arch 2011; 458(1):55-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00428-010-0988-3
  50. Domagala P, Huzarski T, Lubinski J, Gugala K, Domagala W. PARP-1 expression in breast cancer including BRCA1-associated, triple negative and basal-like tumors: possible implications for PARP-1 inhibitor therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011; 127(3):861-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1441-2
  51. O’Shaughnessy J, Osborne C, Pippen JE, Yoffe M, Patt D, Rocha C, et al. Iniparib plus chemotherapy in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2011; 364(3):205-14. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1011418
  52. O’Shaughnessy J, Schwartzberg L, Danso MA, Miller KD, Rugo HS, Neubauer M, et al. Phase III study of iniparib plus gemcitabine and carboplatin versus gemcitabine and carboplatin in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32(34):3840-7. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.55.2984
  53. Rugo HS, Olopade OI, DeMichele A, Yau C, van’t Veer IJ, Buxton MB, et al. Adaptive randomization of veliparib–carboplatin treatment in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2016; 375(1):23-34. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1513749
  54. Robson M, Im SA, Senkus E, Xu B, Domchek SM, Masuda N, et al. Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation. N Engl J Med 2017; 377(6):523-33.https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1706450
  55. Normanno N, De Luca A, Bianco C, Strizzi L, Mancino M, Maiello MR, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in cancer. Gene 2006; 366(1):2-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2005.10.018
  56. Seshacharyulu P, Ponnusamy MP, Haridas D, Jain M, Ganti AK, Batra SK. Targeting the EGFR signaling pathway in cancer therapy.Expert Opin Ther Targets 2012; 16(1):15-31. https://doi.org/10.1517/14728222.2011.648617
  57. Masuda H, Zhang D, Bartholomeusz C, Doihara H, Hortobagyi GH, Ueno NT. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2012; 136(2):331-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-012-2289-9
  58. Sasaki T, Hiroki K, Yamashita Y. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in cancer metastasis and microenvironment. Biomed Res Int 2013; 2013:546318. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/546318
  59. Changavi AA, Shashikala A, Ramji AS. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in triple negative and nontriple negative breast carcinomas. J Lab Physicians 2015; 7(2):79-83. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2727.163129
  60. Martin V, Botta F, Zanellato E, Molinari F, Crippa S, Mazzucchelli L, et al. Molecular characterization of EGFR and EGFR-downstream pathways in triple negative breast carcinomas with basal like features. Histol Histopathol 2012; 27(6):785-92. https://doi.org/10.14670/HH-27.785
  61. Yue Y, Astvatsaturyan K, Cui X, Zhang X, Fraass B, Bose S. Stratification of prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer patients using combinatorial biomarkers. PLoS One 2006; 11(3):e0149661. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149661
  62. Choi J, Jung WH, Koo JS. Clinicopathologic features of molecular subtypes of triple negative breast cancer based on immunohistochemical markers. Histol Histopathol 2012; 27(11):1481-93. https://doi.org/10.14670/HH-27.1481
  63. Kim A, Jang MH, Lee SJ, Bae YK. Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in triple-negative breast cancer. J Breast Cancer 2017; 20(2):150-9. https://doi.org/10.4048/jbc.2017.20.2.150.
  64. Layman RM, Ruppert AS, Lynn M, Mrozek E, Ramaswamy B, Lustberg MB, et al. Severe and prolonged lymphopenia observed in patients treated with bendamustine and erlotinib for metastatic triple negative breast cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2013; 71(5):1183-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00280-013-2112-2
  65. Bernsdorf M, Ingvar C, Jörgensen L, Tuxen MK, Jakobsen EH, Saetersdal A, et al. Effect of adding gefitinib to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor negative early breast cancer in a randomized phase II trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011; 126(2):463-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1352-2
  66. Baselga J, Gómez P, Greil R, Braga S, Climent MA, Wardley AM, et al. Randomized phase II study of the anti–epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab with cisplatin versus cisplatin alone in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2013; 31(20):2586-92. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.46.2408
  67. Crozier JA, Advani PP, LaPlant B, Hobday T, Jaslowski AJ, Moreno-Aspitia A, et al. N0436 (alliance): a phase II trial of irinotecan plus cetuximab in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously exposed to anthracycline and/or taxane-containing therapy. Clin Breast Cancer 2016; 16(1):23-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2015.08.002
  68. Carey LA, Rugo HS, Marcom PK, Mayer EL, Esteva FJ, Ma CX, et al. TBCRC 001: randomized phase II study of cetuximab in combination with carboplatin in stage IV triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30(21):2615-23. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2010.34.5579
  69. Asano Y, Kashiwagi S, Goto W, Tanaka S, Morisaki T, Takashima T, et al. Expression and clinical significance of androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer. Cancers 2017;9(1):e4. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers9010004
  70. Agrawal A, Ziolkowski P, Grzebieniak Z, Jelen M, Bobinski P, Agrawal S. Expression of androgen receptor in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2016; 24(8):550-5. https://doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000234
  71. Niemeier LA, Dabbs DJ, Beriwal S, Striebel JM, Bhargava R. Androgen receptor in breast cancer: expression in estrogen receptor-positive tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative tumors with apocrine differentiation. Mod Pathol 2010; 23(2):205-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2009.159
  72. Chottanapund S, Van Duursen MBM, Ratchaworapong K, Navasumrit P, Ruchirawat M, Van den Berg M. Androgen receptor expression in thai breast cancer patients. Med Sci (Basel) 2016; 4(3):15. https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci4030015
  73. Thike AA, Yong-Zheng Chong L, Cheok PY, Li HH, Wai-Cheong Yip G, Huat Bay B, et al. Loss of androgen receptor expression predicts early recurrence in triple-negative and basal-like breast cancer. Mod Pathol 2014; 27(3):352-60. https://doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2013.145
  74. Qi JP, Yang YL, Zhu H, Wang J, Jia Y, Liu N, et al. Expression of the androgen receptor and its correlation with molecular subtypes in 980 chinese breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer (Auckl) 2012; 6:1-8. https://doi.org/10.4137/BCBCR.S8323
  75. Gucalp A, Tolaney S, Isakoff SJ, Ingle JN, Liu MC, Carey LA, et al. Phase II trial of bicalutamide in patients with androgen receptor–positive, estrogen receptor-negative metastatic breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19(19):5505-12. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-3327
  76. Bonnefoi H, Grellety T, Tredan O, Saghatchian M, Dalenc F, Mailliez A, et al. A phase II trial of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in patients with triple-negative androgen receptor positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (UCBG 12-1). Ann Oncol 2016;27(5):812-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdw067
  77. Traina TA, Miller K, Yardley DA, Eakle J, Schwartzberg LS, O’Shaughnessy J, et al. Enzalutamide for the treatment of androgen receptor-expressing triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2018; 36(9):884-90. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.71.3495
  78. Ishida Y, Agata Y, Shibahara K, Honjo T. Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death. EMBO J 1992; 11(11):3887-95.
  79. Sharpe AH, Pauken KE. The diverse functions of the PD1 inhibitory pathway. Nat Rev Immunol 2018; 18(3):153-67. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2017.108
  80. Mahoney KM, Rennert PD, Freeman GJ. Combination cancer immunotherapy and new immunomodulatory targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2015; 14(8):561-84. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd4591
  81. Ren X, Wu H, Lu J, Zhang Y, Luo Y, Xu Q, et al. PD1 protein expression in tumor infiltrated lymphocytes rather than PDL1 in tumor cells predicts survival in triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 2018; 19(5):373-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2018.1423919
  82. Mittendorf EA, Philips AV, Meric-Bernstam F, Qiao N, Wu Y, Harrington S, et al. PD-L1 expression in triple negative breast cancer. Cancer Immunol Res 2014; 2(4):361-70.
  83. Nanda R, Chow LQ, Dees EC, Berger R, Gupta S, Geva R, et al. Pembrolizumab in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer: phase ib KEYNOTE-012 study. J Clin Oncol 2016; 34(21):2460-7. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.64.8931
  84. Schmid P, Park YH, Muñoz-Couselo E, Kim SB, Sohn J, Im SA. Pembrolizumab (pembro) + chemotherapy (chemo) as neoadjuvant treatment for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC): Preliminary results from KEYNOTE-173. J Clin Oncol2017; 35(suppl):556.
  85. Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumors. Nature 2012; 490(7418):61-70. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11412
  86. Gatalica Z, Snyder C, Maney T, Ghazalpour A, Holterman DA, Xiao N, et al. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) in common cancers and their correlation with molecular cancer type. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2014; 23(12):2965-70. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0654
  87. AiErken N, Shi HJ, Zhou Y, Shao N, Zhang J, Shi Y, et al. High PD-L1 expression is closely associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and leads to good clinical outcomes in chinese triple negative breast cancer patients. Int J Biol Sci 2017; 13(9):1172-9. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.20868
  88. Denkert C, von Minckwitz G, Brase JC, Sinn BV, Gade S, Kronenwett R, et al. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without carboplatin in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive and triple-negative primary breast cancers. J Clin Oncol 2015;33(9):983-91. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.58.1967
  89. Nanda R, Liu MC, Yau C, Asare S, Hylton N, Van’t Veer L, et al. Pembrolizumab plus standard neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk breast cancer (BC): Results from I-SPY 2. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35(Suppl 15):506.
  90. Adams S, Loi S, Toppmeyer D, Cescon DW, et al. Phase 2 study of pembrolizumab as first-line therapy for PD-L1–positive metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC): Preliminary data from KEYNOTE-086 cohort B. Clin Oncol 2017; 35(suppl 15):1088.
  91. Adams S, Diamond JR, Hamilton EP, et al. Phase Ib trial of atezolizumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). J Clin Oncol2016; 34(suppl):1009.
  92. Pivot X, Marmé F, Koenigsberg R, Guo M, Berrak E, Wolfer A. Pooled analyses of eribulin in metastatic breast cancer patients with at least one prior chemotherapy. Ann Oncol 2016; 27(8):1525-31. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdw203
  93. Manikhas A, Kovalenko E, Manzyuk V, Bolotina LV, Zhilyaeva L, Karabina E. Efficacy and safety of eribulin in patients with triple negative metastatic breast cancer: Real life experience. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35(suppl 15):e12580.
  94. Eisai Co., Ltd. Updated Analysis Of Phase Ib/Ii Study Of Eribulin And Pembrolizumab Combination Regimen In Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Presented At San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. Accessed Feb Wednesday, 2018. http://www.eisai.com/news/enews201770pdf.pdf.
  95. Coradini D, Biganzoli E, Ardoino I, Ambrogi F, Boracchi P, Demicheli R,et al. p53 status identifies triple-negative breast cancer patients who do not respond to adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast 2015; 24(3):294-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2015.01.007
  96. Biganzoli E, Coradini D, Ambrogi F, Garibaldi JM, Lisboa P, Soria D, et al. p53 status identifies two subgroups of triple-negative breast cancers with distinct biological features. JpnJ Clin Oncol2011; 41(2):172-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyq227
  97. Millis SZ, Gatalica Z, Winkler J, Vranic S, Kimbrough J, Reddy S,et al. Predictive biomarker profiling of > 6000 breast cancer patients shows heterogeneity in TNBC, with treatment implications. Clin Breast Cancer 2015; 15(6):473-81.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2015.04.008
  98. Walerych D, Napoli M, Collavin L, Del Sal G. The rebel angel: mutant p53 as the driving oncogene in breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 2012; 33(11):2007-17. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgs232
  99. Synnott NC, Murray AM, O’Donovan N, Duffy MJ, Crown J. Combined treatment using the anti-p53 drug, APR-246 and eribulin: Synergistic growth inhibition in p53-mutated breast cancer cells. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35(suppl 15):e14098.
  100. Westin SN, Nieves-Neira W, Lynam C, Salim KY, Silva AD, Ho RT, Mills GB, Coleman RL, Janku F, Matei D. Safety and early efficacy signals for COTI-2, an orally available small molecule targeting p53, in a phase I trial of recurrent gynecologic cancer [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2018. Cancer Res 2018; 78(13): Abstract nr CT033.
  101. Gourley C, Green J, Gabra H, Vergote I, Basu B, Brenton JD, Björklund U, Smith AM, Euler MV. PISARRO: A EUTROC phase Ib study of APR-246 in combination with carboplatin (C) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in platinum sensitive relapsed high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). J Clin Oncol 2016; 5571.
  102. Lü L, Mao X, Shi P, He B, Xu K, Zhang S, et al. Micro RNAs in the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(22):e7085. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000007085.
  103. Svoboda M, Sana J, Redova M, Navratil J, Palacova M, Fabian P, et al. MiR-34b is associated with clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer patients. Diagn Pathol 2012; 7:31. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-1596-7-31
  104. Chen LL, Zhang ZJ, Yi ZB, Li JJ. MicroRNA-211-5p suppresses tumour cell proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer by directly targeting SETBP1. Br J Cancer 2017; 117(1):78-88. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.150
  105. Mitra S. MicroRNA therapeutics in triple negative breast cancer. Arch Pathol Clin Res 2017; 1:009-017. https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.hjpcr.1001003
  106. Ouyang M, Li Y, Ye S, Ma J, Lu L, Lv W, et al. MicroRNA profiling implies new markers of chemoresistance of triple-negative breast cancer. PLoS One 2014; 9(5):e96228. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096228
  107. Wu J, Sun Z, Sun H, Li Y. MicroRNA 27a promotes tumorigenesis via targeting AKT in triple negative breast cancer. Mol Med Rep 2018; 17(1):562-70. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.7886
  108. Sun X, Li Y, Zheng M, Zuo W, Zheng W. MicroRNA-223 increases the sensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer stem cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by targeting HAX-1. PLoS One 2016; 11(9):e0162754. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162754
  109. Zhang Y, Kwok-Shing Ng P, Kucherlapati M, Chen F, Liu Y, Tsang YH, et al. A pan-cancer proteogenomic atlas of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterations.Cancer Cell2017; 31(6):820-32.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2017.04.013
  110. Woo SU, Sangai T, Akcakanat A, Chen H, Wei C, Meric-Bernstam F. Vertical inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is synergistic in breast cancer. Oncogenesis 2017; 6(10):e385. https://doi.org/10.1038/oncsis.2017.86
  111. Polivka JJr, Janku F. Molecular targets for cancer therapy in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Pharmacol Ther 2014; 142(2):164-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.12.004
  112. Solzak JP, Atale RV, Hancock BA, Sinn AL, Pollok KE, Jones DR, et al. Dual PI3K and Wnt pathway inhibition is a synergistic combination against triple negative breast cancer. NPJ Breast Cancer 2017; 3:17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41523-017-0016-8
  113. de Lint K, Poell JB, Soueidan H, Jastrzebski K, Vidal Rodriguez J, Lieftink C,et al. Sensitizing triple-negative breast cancer to PI3K inhibition by cotargeting IGF1R. Mol Cancer Ther 2016; 15(7):1545-56. https://doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0865
  114. Gohr K, Hamacher A, Engelke LH, Kassack MU. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR overcomes cisplatin resistance in the triple negative breast cancer cell line HCC38. BMC Cancer 2017; 17(1):711. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3695-5
  115. Basho RK, Gilcrease M, Murthy RK, Helgason T, Karp DD, Meric-Bernstam F, et al. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway for the treatment of mesenchymal triple-negative breast cancer: evidence from a phase I trial of mTOR inhibition in combination with liposomal doxorubicin and bevacizumab. JAMA Oncol 2017; 3(4):509-15. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5281
  116. Tumonggor MK, Karafet TM, Hallmark B, Lansing JS, Sudoyo H, Hammer MF, et al. The Indonesian archipelago: an ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific. J Hum Genet 2013; 58(3):165-73. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2012.154
  117. Dent R, Trudeau M, Pritchard KI,Hanna WM, Kahn HK, Sawka CA, et al. Triple-negative breast cancer: clinical features and patterns of recurrence. Clin Cancer Res 2017; 13(15 Pt 1):4429-34. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-3045
  118. Sirohi B, Arnedos M, Popat S, Ashley S, Nerurkar A, Walsh G, et al. Platinum-based chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2008; 19(11):1847-52. https://10.1093/annonc/mdn395
  119. Kaplan HG, Malmgren JA, Atwood M. T1N0 triple negative breast cancer: risk of recurrence and adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast J 2009; 15(5):454-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4741.2009.00789.x
  120. Liedtke C, Mazouni C, Hess KR, André F, Tordai A, Mejia JA, et al. Response to neoadjuvant therapy and long-term survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol2008; 26(8):1275-81. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.14.4147
  121. Cortazar P, Zhang L, Untch M, Mehta K, Costantino JP, Wolmark N, et al. Pathological complete response and long-term clinical benefit in breast cancer: the CTNeoBC pooled analysis. Lancet 2014; 384(9938):164-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62422-8
  122. Turdo F, Bianchi F, Gasparini P, Sandri M, Sasso M, De Cecco L, et al. CDCP1 is a novel marker of the most aggresive human triple-negative breast cancers. Oncotarget 2016; 7(43):69649-65. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11935 



DOI: https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci005201202009

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 485 | views : 378




Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala ilmu Kedokteran)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

 

Creative Commons License
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) by  Universitas Gadjah Mada is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/bik/.