Relation between -carotene and ferritin upon malondialdehyde in Javanese male smoker

Naomi Yoshuantari Ahmad Hamim Sadewa Sunarti(1*)

(*) Corresponding Author


Smoking of cigarette can cause additional free radicals. Oxidative damage is resulted from the accumulation of free
radicals in the body. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the end product of free radicals, a marker of oxidative damage. -
carotene is pro-vitamin A, an antioxidant known to quench singlet oxygen. Ferritin is thought to release excessive
iron in smokers, thereby increasing the oxidative stress. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relation between -
carotene and ferritin toward MDA level in Javanese smokers. This study was carried out in a case-control, cross
sectional design nested with cluster sampling. Participants were Javanese smokers and non-smokers in Purworejo
district, Central Java. Samples and data were obtained secondarily. The results were analyzed using independent
samples t-test and linear regression. The results showed that there was very weak negative correlation between -
carotene with MDA (R square=0.013; p value=0.320) and very weak positive correlation between ferritin with
MDA (R square=0.043; p value=0.067). There was no statistically significant relation of -carotene with MDA.
Ferritin level was marginally influential upon MDA level as the marker of lipid peroxidation between smokers and
non-smokers. Aging apparently became the confounding variable by influencing the lipid peroxidation more efficiently
than smoking itself (p = 0.013). In conclusion, there was no significant relation between -carotene and ferritin
with MDA in smokers.
Key words : smoking – cigarette – β-carotene – ferritin – malondialdehyde

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Creative Commons License
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) by  Universitas Gadjah Mada is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.