Evaluation of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci004801201605

Michael Bhadi Bia(1), E. Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati(2*), Neil F Lobo(3), William A Hawley(4), . Supargiyono(5)

(1) Post Graduate Program of Basic Medical and Biomedical Science of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Politeknik Kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan Kupang,
(2) Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Indonesia
(3) Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA,
(4) UNICEF Jakarta, Indonesia
(5) Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium
falciparum malaria has been applied in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia, since
2004. However evaluation of the two ACT regimens used ie: Artesunate Amodiaquine
(AAQ) and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine (DHP) co-administered with Primaquine (PQ)
has not been performed. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of
AAQ+PQ and DHP+PQ treatment in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Purworejo. In
this descriptive and observational study, 46 Pf infected patients who fullfill the inclusion
and exclusion criterias were recruited from December 2010 to August 2011. Standard
ACT treatment were given to the patients followed by WHO drug efficacy evaluation for
28 days. The clinical symptoms and adverse events was also evaluated over the course of
the treatment. From all recruited subjects, 37 patients received DHP+PQ and 9 patients
received AAQ+PQ. On the DHP+PQ treated patient, all subjects were free of asexual
and sexual parasites by Day-3 while on AAQ+PQ treated patient, this parasite clearance
was achieved faster as early as on D-2 at the latest. On the otherhand, the disappearance
of fever was also last longer in DHP+PQ treated patient which in one patient last on
D-14, while in AAQ+PQ treated patient, the symptom of fever dissappeared by D-2
at the latest. No Early or Late Treatment Failures were found on either DHP+PQ or
AAQ+PQ treatment as well as clinical and parasitological failures. However, the presence
of adverse events cause by both drugs should not be ignored to ensure drug compliance.

Keywords


falciparum malaria – artesunate + amodiaquine – dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine - treatment failure - adverse events

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci004801201605

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