Political Machine and Challenger Victory in a Javanese Village Chief Election

https://doi.org/10.22146/pcd.52779

Wegik Prasetyo(1*)

(1) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Political machines are widely evident in Indonesian elections, particularly in the sale of political services and use of clientelistic strategies. However, in several cases candidates have created political machines without buying political services or employing clientelistic strategies. Using a qualitative approach to examine the 2018 village chief election in Ngestiharjo, Yogyakarta, this article explains how electoral challengers can use political machines without buying political services, as well as the reason such challengers and their machines decide not to employ clientelism in their search for electoral victory. The author shows that several factors, including elite fragmentation, candidate recruitment, socio-political networks, and the existence of a shared enemy effectively nullify the buying of political services and the use of clientelistic strategies. This article shows that local village contexts, as well as reliance on social bonds, enable challengers to avoid the transactionalism and clientelism that have long characterised political machines. This is further supported by the ability of a challenger and his socio-political network to exploit the weaknesses of the incumbent.

Keywords


Village Elections, Challenger Victory, Political Machine, Clientelism

Full Text:

PDF


References

Ansolabehere, S., & Snyder, J. (2002). The incumbency advantage in U.S. elections: An analysis of state and federal offices, 1942–2000. Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy, 1(3), 315–338.

Aspinall, E., & As'ad, M.U. (2015). The patronage patchwork: Village brokerage networks and the power of the state in an Indonesian election. Bijdragen Tot De Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde, 171(2/3), 165–195.

Aspinall, E., & Rohman, N. (2017). Village head elections in Java: Money politics and brokerage in the remaking of Indonesia's rural elite. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 48(1), 31–52.

Aspinall, E., & Sukmajati, M. (2015). Politik uang di Indonesia: Patronase dan klientilisme pada pemilu legislatif 2014. Yogyakarta: PolGov.

Banfield, E.C., & Wilson, J.Q. (1966). City politics. Vintage Books: New York.

Bantul, P.D. (2017, August 30). Peraturan daerah kabupaten Bantul nomor 08 tahun 2017 tentang perubahan kedua atas peraturan daerah kabupaten Bantul nomor 03 tahun 2015 tentang tata cara pemilihan, pengangkatan dan pemberhentian lurah desa. Retrieved from hukum.bantulkab.go.id/unduh/peraturan-daerah/2017/08.

Bantul, P. D. (2018). Surat edaran (SE) Bupati Bantul nomor 141/04386/ad-pemdes tentang netralitas aparatur pemerintahan desa dan tertib pelaksanaan pemilihan kepala desa serentak 2018. 3, October.

Budi, A., Sukmajati, M., & Prasetyo, W. (2018). Kampanye padat modal oleh calon perseorangan: Studi kasus pilkada kota Madiun 2018. In M. Sukmajati & A. Perdana (Eds), Pembiayaan Pemilu di Indonesia (pp. 211–328). Jakarta: Bawaslu RI.

Choi, N. (2011). Local politics in Indonesia: Pathways to power. London: Routledge.

Erb, M., & Sulistiyanto, P. (2009). Deepening democracy in Indonesia? Direct elections for local leaders (Pilkada). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Farrell, D. (1996). Campaign strategies and tactics. In L. LeDuc, R. G. Niemi, & P. Norris (Eds.), Comparing democracies: Elections and voting in global perspective (pp. 160–183). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Gans‐Morse, J., Mazzuca, S., & Nichter, S. (2013). Varieties of clientelism: Machine politics during elections. American Journal of Political Science, 58(2), 415-432.

Golosov, G.V. (2013). Machine politics: The concept and its implications for post-soviet studies. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, 21(4), 459–480.

Gosnell, H.F. (1933). The political party versus the political machine. Sage Journal, 169 (1), 21–28.

Gottfried, A. (1968). Political machines. In D. L. Sills (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 12 (pp. 248–252). New York: Macmillan and the Free Press.

Hedman, E. L. (2010). Democratisation & new voter mobilisation in Southeast Asia: beyond machine politics?: reformism, populism and Philippine elections. London: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Kartodirdjo, S. (1992). Pesta demokrasi di pedesaan: studi kasus pemilihan kepala desa di Jawa Tengah dan DIY. Yogyakarta: Aditya Media.

KPU. (2014). Daftar calon terpilih anggota dprd kabupaten/kota pemilu 2014. Retrieved from http://kpud-bantulkab.go.id/filestorage/dokumen/2014/09/MODEL%20EB-3.pdf.

KPU. (2015). Hasil hitung TPS (Form c1) Kabupaten Bantul. Retrieved from https://pilkada2015.kpu.go.id/bantulkab/.

Krebs, T. B. (1998). The determinants of candidates' vote share and advantages of incumbency in city council elections. American Journal of Political Science, 42(3), 921–935.

Krebs, T.B. (2005). Money and machine politics: an analysis of corporate and labor contributions in Chicago city council elections. Urban Affairs Review, 41(1), 47–64.

Lombard, D. (1996). Nusa Jawa silang budaya. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Masudi, W. & Kurniawan, N. I. (2017). Programmatic politics and voter preferences: the 2017 election in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 39(3), 449–469.

Ngestiharjo, P. D. (2017). Anggaran pendapatan dan belanja desa (APBDes) Ngestiharjo 2017. Yogyakarta: Ngestiharjo Village Government.

Stokes, S.C. (2005). Perverse accountability: A formal model of machine politics with evidence from Argentina. American Political Science Review, 99(3), 315–325.

Szwarcberg, M. (2015). Mobilizing poor voters: Machine politics, clientelism, and social networks in Argentina. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Trounstine, J. (2011). Evidence of a local incumbency advantage. Legislative Studies Quarterly, 36(2), 255–280.

Yuningsih, N.Y., & Subekti, V. S. (2016). Demokrasi dalam pemilihan kepala desa? Studi kasus desa dengan tipologi tradisional, transisional, dan modern di provinsi Jawa Barat tahun 2008–2013. Jurnal Politik, 1(2), 231–261.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/pcd.52779

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 407 | views : 201

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 PCD Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

web
analytics View My Stats

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

       

 

 

                                © Faculty of Social and Political Sciences Gadjah Mada University Jl. Sosio-Yustisia Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
                                                     Telp (0274) 563362 Ext. 150; +62 811 2515 863 - email: pcd@ugm.ac.id