Surviving Election: Corruption and Transformation of Clientelism

https://doi.org/10.22146/pcd.29324

Caroline Paskarina(1*)

(1) Departemen Ilmu Politik Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Padjadjaran
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This article discusses clientelism practice as a political machine to mobilise supports for the candidates of district head who were trapped in a corruption case. This research especially intended to answer the question why the incumbent candidate of district head who had become the suspect of cases of corruption, still got relatively significant votes. Although the incumbent failed to win in the pilkada (the election of the district head), the votes that they got became the reason to uncover the redistribution and infrastructure strategy that was used to muffle the image of the incumbent as a corrupt politician. The findings of this research indicated that supporting political parties used the corruption case as a momentum to change the pattern of clientelism, by transforming the personal loyalty to the party loyalty. The political party institutionally took a role as a patron, so that the personal dependency to the elites decreased, but also was directed to a wider variation of the use of public resources for the sake of mobilising support. By using this strategy, the coalition of political party in “tim sukses” maintained their solidarity as well as redeveloped the patron structure that was weakened by corruption cases. The strategy change used by “tim sukses” in reframing the corruption issues indicated the work of clientelism networking to justify the new construction about corruption cases done by the incumbents, so that the incumbents remained able to get votes although they had been considered as the suspects in those cases.

Keywords


clientalism; corruption; patronage networking

Full Text:

PDF


References

Aspinall, E., & Sukmajati, M. (eds.). (2015). Politik Uang di Indonesia: Patronase dan Klientelisme di Pemilu Legislatif 2014. Yogyakarta: PolGov, JPP, and Australia National University.

Auyero, J. (2000). Poor People’s Politics: Peronist Survival Networks and the Legacy of Evita. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Bratton, M., Mattes, R., & Gyimah-Boadi, E. (2005). Public Opinion, Democracy, and Market Reform in Africa, Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Brusco, V., Nazareno, M., & Stokes, S.C. (2004). Vote Buying in Argentina. Latin American Research Review, 39(2), 66-88.

Chang, E.C.C., & Kerr, N.N. (2009). Do Voters Have Different Attitudes toward Corruption? The Sources and Implications of Popular Perceptions and Tolerance of Political Corruption. Afrobarometer Working Papers. Paper downloaded from https://www.files.ethz. ch/isn/110435/AfropaperNo116.pdf, 23 July 2017.

Cox, G.W., & McCubbins, M.D. (1986). Electoral Politics as a Redistributive Game. The Journal of Politics, 48(2), 370-389.

Cox, G.W. (2009). Swing Voters, Core Voters and Distributive Politics. Paper presented in the Conference on Representation and Popular Rule, Yale University. Accessed at http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/polisci/ cpworkshop/papers/Cox.pdf, 10 April 2017.

Erawan, I K. P. (2008). Clientelism, Political Survive, and Democratization. Paper presented in the Intensive Short Course for Trainers on Human Rights and Democracy, PSSAT UGM-DEMOS-UiO, 2 – 11 December 2008.

Finan, F., & Schechter, L. (2012.) Vote-buying and Reciprocity. Econometrica. 80 (2), 863-881.

Fukuyama, F. (2012). The Two Europes, Accessed at https://www.theamerican-interest.com/2012/05/08/the-two-europes/, 1 April 2017.

Gans-Morse, J., Mazzuca, S., & Nichter, S. (2010). Varieties of Clientelism: Machine Politics during Elections. Working paper accessed at http:// faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~jlg562/documents/VoC_AJPS_ final.pdf, 10 April 2017.

Heidenheimer, A., & Johnston, M. (eds). (2007). Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Hopkin, J. (2006a). Conceptualizing Political Clientelism: Political Exchange and Democratic Theory. Paper presented in APSA annual meeting, Philadelphia, 31 August – 3 September 2006. Panel 46-18 ‘Concept Analysis: Unpacking Clientelism, Governance and Neoliberalism’, Accessed at https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/237386883_Conceptualizing_Political_Clientelism_ Political_Exchange_and_Democratic_Theory, 5 April 2017.

Hopkin, J. (2006b). Clientelism and Party Politics. In Richard S. Katz & William Crotty (eds.), Handbook of Party Politics, London: Sage Publication.

Katz, R., & Crotty, W. (eds.). (2014). Handbook of Party Politics. London: Sage Publication. Kitschelt, H. (2000). Linkages Between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities. Comparative Political Studies, 33, 845-879.

Kitschelt, H., & Wilkinson, S. (eds.). (2007). Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Keefer, P. (2005). Democratization and Clientelism: Why are Young Democracies Badly Governed?. World Bank Policy Research Paper, 3594.

Levitsky, S. (2003). Transforming Labor-Based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Lindbeck, A., & Weibull, J.W. (1987). Balanced-Budget Redistribution as the Outcome of Political Competition. Public Choice, 52(3), 273- 297.

Manzetti, L., & Wilson, C.J. (2007). Why Do Corrupt Government Maintain Public Support? Comparative Political Studies, 40(8), 949- 970.

Medina, L., & Stokes, S. (2002). Clientelism as Political Monopoly. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Miller, W. (2006). Perceptions, Experience and Lies: What Measures Corruption and What Do Corruption Measures Measure?” In Sampford, et al. Measuring Corruption. Aldershot, England, Burlington: Ashgate.

Muhtadi, B. (2013). Politik Uang dan Dinamika Elektoral di Indonesia: Sebuah Kajian Awal Interaksi Antara “Party-ID” dan PatronKlien. Jurnal Penelitian Politik, 10 (1), 41-57.

Muno, W. (2010). Conceptualizing and Measuring Clientelism. Paper presented in the Workshop of Neopatrimonialism in Various World Regions. 296 Hamburg: GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.

Nichter, S. (2008). Vote Buying or Turnout Buying? Machine Politics and the Secret Ballot. American Political Science Review, 102(1), 19-31.

Philp, M. (2007). Conceptualizing Political Corruption. In A. Heidenheimer & M. Johnston (eds). Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Scott, J.C. (1969). Corruption, Machine Politics, and Political Change. American Political Science Review, 63(4), 1142-1158.

Shefter, M. (1977). Party and Patronage: Germany, England, and Italy. Politics and Society, 7, 403-452.

 Seligson, M. (2002). The Impact of Corruption on Regime Legitimacy: A Comparative Study of Four Latin American Countries. Journal of Politics 64(2), 408-433.

Stokes, S.C. (2005). Perverse Accountability: A Formal Model of Machine Politics with Evidence from Argentina. American Political Science Review, 99(3), 315-325.

Thompson, D.F. (1995). Ethics in Congress: From Individual to Institutional Corruption. Washington: Brookings.

Wantchekon, L. (2003). Clientelism and Voting Behavior: A Field Experiment in Benin. World Politics, 55, 399-422.

Weingrod, A. (1968). Patrons, Patronage and Political Parties. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 10, 377-400.

Zaller, J.R. (1992). The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/pcd.29324

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 752 | views : 370

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 PCD Journal



web
analytics View My Stats

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

       

 

 

                                © Faculty of Social and Political Sciences Gadjah Mada University Jl. Sosio-Yustisia Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
                                                     Telp (0274) 563362 Ext. 150; +62 811 2515 863 - email: pcd@ugm.ac.id