State and Civil Society Relationships in Indonesia: A society-oriented Reading in Search for Democratic Space

https://doi.org/10.22146/pcd.25678

Aris Arif Mundayat(1*), Pitra Narendra(2), Budi Irawanto(3)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah mada
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This paper has shown how the relationship between state and civil society in Indonesia is part of the problem of building democratic government. The problems in Indonesian society is the polycentric nature, by which civil society organisations or popular organisations are being fragmanted and often unorganised. This has made it increasingly difficult to transform various conflicts into more political through democratic institution. At least there are four major problems:


The first problem is when a strong civil society faces an ineffective state tactic of governmentality. This tends to stimulate civil society resistance and conflict; or it fosters coexistence through alternative governmentality techniques where the relationship between the state and society is in conflict. The second problem is when a weak civil society faces and effective state. This tends to trigger practices of money politics which are embedded in patronage and clientelism. The third problem can be found in the situation where weak civil society faces an ineffective state which tends to stimulate the emergence of extralegal governmentality practiced by thugs, militia, vigilantes, and paramilitaries. The fourth problem is reflected in the situation where a strong civil society faces an effective state.


Full Text:

PDF


References

Anderson, BRO’G 1972a, ‘The idea of power in Javanese culture’, in C Holt (ed), Culture and politics in Indonesia, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Anderson, BRO’G 1972b, Java in the time of revolution: occupation and resistance, 1944-1946, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Anderson, BRO’G 1983, Imagined communities: refl ections on the origin 100and spread and spread of nationalism, Verso, London.

Antlov, H 1995, Exemplary centre, administrative periphery: rural leaderships and the new order, Curson Press, Richmond, Surrey.

Appadurai, A 2004, ‘Deep democracy: Urban Governmentality and the horizon of politics’. Journal of Public Culture Vol 14 no.1, pp 21-47.

Aspinall, Edward (2005): Opposing Suharto: Compromise, Resistance and Regime Change in Indonesia (2005: Stanford University Press, Stanford)

Baso, A 2002,Plesetan lokalitas: politik pribumisasi Islam,Desantara, Jakarta.

Brown, D & Wilson, I 2007, ‘Ethnicized violence in Indonesia: the Betawi Brotherhood Forum in Jakarta, Working Paper, no.145, July, Murdoch University, Australia.

Chandhoke, Neera, 1995. State and Civil Society- Exploration in Political Theory. New Delhi: Sage.

Chaterjee, Partha, 2001. “Democracy and the Violence of the State: A political Negotiation of Death” in Inter-Asia Cultural Studies: p 8, 10.

Crouch, H 1979 Patrimonialism and Military Rule in Indonesia, World Politics, vol. 31, no. 4, pp.571-87.

Dewayanti, R & Chotim, EE 2004, Marjinalisasi dan eksploitasi perempuan usaha mikro di pedesaan Jawa, Akatiga and ASPPUK, Bandung.

Dwipayana, AAGNA, 2005, Globalism: pergulatan politik representasi atas Bali, Uluangkep Press, Denpasar.

Feith, H 1962, The decline of constitutional democracy in Indonesia, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Feith, H 1980, The study of Indonesian politics: a survey and an apologia. In Herbert Feith. Repressive-Developmentalist Regimes in Asia: Old Strength, New Vulnerabilities, Prisma: TheIndonesian Indicator, Issue 19, December.

Foucault, M 1980, Power/knowledge, selected interview and other writing 1972-1977. Edited by Collin Gordong. Pantheon Books, New York

Foucault, Michel 1993, “About the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the Self” (Transcription of two lectures in Darthmouth on Nov. 17 and 24, 1980), ed. by Mark Blasius, in: Political Theory, Vol. 21, No. 2, May, 1993, pp. 198-227.

Foucault, M 1994, “Subject and power” in Power, essential work of Foucault 1954-1984. Edited by James D. Faubion. Vol 3. Penguin Books. London.

Geertz, C 1960, The religion of Java, Free Press, Glencoe. Geertz, C 1963, Agricultural involution: the process of ecological change in Indonesia, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Habermas, J. 1987. The Theory of Coomunicative Action. Vol 2, Boston: Beacon Press.

 ---------------- 1989, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

 ---------------- 1996, Between facts and Norms: Contribution to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hadiz, Vedi R 1997, Workers and the state in new order Indonesia, Routledge, London

Hendarta, B 2005, Tantangan pemberdayaan masyarakat adat di Kabupaten Landak Propinsi Kalimantan Barat, IRE, Yogyakarta.

Ishak, OS 2004, ‘Konstruksi Konfl ik Aceh,’ in L Triyono, et. al. (eds.) potret retak nusantara: studi kasus konfl ik di Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Centre for Security and Peace Studies, Gadjah Mada University.

Jackson, KD 1978, ‘Bureaucratic polity: a theoretical framework for analysis of power and communication in Indonesia,’ in K Jackson and L Pye (eds), Political power and communication in Indonesia, University of California Press, Berkeley.

 Kahin, GMcT 1952, Nationalism and revolution in Indonesia, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Ku, Agnes 2002, “Beyond the Paradoxical Conception of `Civil Society without Citizenship’” in international Sociology. http://iss. sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/17/4/529.

Kusnadi 2007, Jaminan sosial nelayan,Yogyakarta, LKIS. Liddle, William ‘Evolution from Above: National Leadership and Local Development in Indonesia,’ Journal of Asian Studies, XXXII, No. 2 (February 1973), pp. 287-309.

Makinudin 2004, Air untuk secangkir kopi petani: refl eksi pengalaman advokasi irigasi di Way, Seputih, Bandung, AKATIGA.

Masaaki, O & Rozaki, A 2006, Kelompok kekerasan dan bos lokal di era reformasi, IRE, Yogyakarta.

Manurung, B 2007, Sokola rimba, pengalaman belajar bersama Oran Rimba, INSIST Press, Yogyakarta

Maunati, Y 2004, Identitas Dayak: komodifi kasi dan politik kebudayaan, LKIS, Yogyakarta.

Mundayat, A 2005, ‘Ritual and Politics in New Order Indonesia: A Study of Discourse and Counter Discourse in Indonesia,’ PhD Thesis, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia.

McVey, RT 1965, The rise of Indonesian communism, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

McVey, RT (ed) 1978, Southeast Asian transitions: approaches through social history, Yale University Press, New Haven.Asia Program, Cornell University, Ithaca.

McVey, RT (ed) 1992, Southeast Asian Capitalist, Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, Ithaca.

Nasir, A et.al. 2007, Media rakyat: mengorganisasi diri melalui informasi,Yogyakarta.

O’Donnell 1994, Bureaucratic autoritarianism, Argentina, 1966-1975 in comparative perspective, California University Press, California.

O’Donnell, Schmitter, and Whitehead 1986, Transitions from authoritarian rule. Comparative perspectives. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.

Parson, Talcott, 1971. The System of Modern Societies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Priyono, A.E, Samadhi, Willy P, and Törnquist, Olle 2007. Making Democracy Meaningful. Problems and Options in Indonesia. Jogjakarta, Jakarta and Singapore: PCD Press, Demos and ISEAS. (1st edition 2005)

Qodir, Z & Susan N 2004, ‘Aksi radikalisme Islam,’ in L Triyono, et. al. (eds) Potret retak nusantara: studi kasus konfl ik di Indonesia, Centre for Security and Peace Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta.

Robison, R 1981, ‘Culture, politics and economy in the political history of the New Order,’ Indonesia, Vol.31, April.

Robison, R 1986, Indonesia: the rise of the capital, Asian Studies Association of Australia, Canberra.

Robison, R & Hadiz, V 2004, Reorganizing power in Indonesia: the politics of oligarchy in an age of markets, Routledge Curzon, London .

Siregar, LA 2004, “Peta konfl ik Papua terkini,’ in LTriyono, et. al. (eds.) Potret retak nusantara: studi kasus konfl ik di Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Centre for Security and Peace.

 Sujuthi 2001,Politik tarekat: studi tentang hubungan agama, Negara dan masyarakat,Yogyakarta, Galang Press.

Suryawan, N 2005,Bali: narasi dalam kuasa, Ombak, Yogyakarta. TIFA 2005, Pembangunan (pro) rakyat telah dimulai, Yayasan TIFA,Jakarta.

Törnquist, Olle, 1989 & 1991. What’s Wrong with Marxism? Vo.1: On Capitalists and Statein India and Indonesia. Vol.2: On Peasants and Workers in India and Indonesia. New Delhi: Manohar.

Törnquist, Olle, 2004 ‘The political defi cit of substantial democratisastion. in J Harris, K Stokke, and O Tornquist (eds) Politising democracy: the new local politics of democratisation, Palgrave McMillan, Hampshire and New York. pp. 201-25.

Touraine, A 2000, Can we live together: equality and difference, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Wilson, ID 2006, Continuity and change: the changing contours of organized violence in Post–New Order Indonesia, Critical Asian Studies, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 265-97,

Yunanto, S 2003, Gerakan militan Islam di Indonesia dan di Asia Tenggara, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung and The RIDEP Institute, Jakarta.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/pcd.25678

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1157 | views : 984

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Power, Conflict and Democracy Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

web
analytics View My Stats

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

       

 

 

                                © Faculty of Social and Political Sciences Gadjah Mada University Jl. Sosio-Yustisia Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
                                                     Telp (0274) 563362 Ext. 150; +62 811 2515 863 - email: pcd@ugm.ac.id