Karakteristik kawat TMA (titanium molybdenum alloy) dan penggunaannya dalam perawatan ortodonti

https://doi.org/10.22146/mkgk.33761

Putri Arifiani(1*), Erwin Siregar Erwin Siregar(2)

(1) Program Pendidikan Dokter Gigi Spesialis Ortodonti, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
(2) Departemen Ortodonti, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kawat merupakan salah satu piranti yang penting dalam perawatan ortodonsia. Perkembangan terkini dari kawat ortodonsia menghasilkan beberapa jenis kawat dengan karakteristik yang berbeda-beda. Studi pustaka membahas karakteristik kawat ortodonsi beta titanium atau Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) dan penggunaannya dalam perawatan ortodonsi. Perbedaan karakteristik tiap kawat menjadi hal yang perlu dipertimbangkan secara klinis. Kawat beta titanium atau sering disebut juga dengan kawat TMA (Titanium Molybdenum Alloy), diperkenalkan pertama kali oleh Goldberg dan Charles Burstone pada tahun 1979. Kawat ini mempunyai komposisi 77,8% titanium, 11,3% molybdenum, 6,6% zirconium, dan 4,3% tin. Ion molybdenum berperan menstabilkan fasa β titanium pada suhu ruang, sedangkan zirconium dan tin berperan dalam meningkatkan kekuatan dan kekerasan. Keunggulan kawat TMA antara lain memiliki derajat kekakuan atau modulus elastisitas yang rendah, springback besar, energi potensial yang besar, formabilitas dan jointability yang baik, serta biokompatibel. Kawat TMA direkomendasikan sebagai kawat intermediate setelah aligning & leveling dengan kawat nikel titanium, dan pada tahap akhir perawatan (detailing & finishing), namun tidak direkomendasikan untuk pergerakan sliding. Hal ini disebabkan karena kawat TMA mempunyai koefisien friksi yang besar. Seiring perkembangannya, berbagai kawat TMA diproduksi dengan implantasi ion maupun coating, yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki karakteristik fisik kawat TMA sehingga meningkatkan performa kawat TMA dalam aplikasi klinisnya.

ABSTRACT: The characteristics of Titanium Molybdenum Alloy wire and its apllication in orthodontic treatment. Wire is one of the most important devices in orthodontic treatment. Recent developments in orthodontic wires result a high variety of wires with different characteristics. The differences in characteristic of each wire should be considered in clinical application. The beta titanium wire, also known as TMA (Titanium Molybdenum Alloy), was firstly introduced by Goldberg and Charles Burstone in 1979. This wire is composed of 77.8% titanium, 11.3% molybdenum, 6.6% zirconium, and 4.3% tin. Molybednum contributes to stabilize the beta phase of titanium at room temperature, while additions of zirconium and tin contribute to increase the strength and hardness of the alloy. The excellences of TMA wire are low stiffness, high springback, high potential energy, good formability, biocompatible and the ability of direct welding. TMA is recommended to be used as intermediate wires after aligning and leveling stage with nickel titanium wires, and also to be used in detailing and final finishing stage, but not recommended in space closure with sliding mechanism. It is because of the major drawback of TMA that is high coefficient of friction. As its development, a number variety of TMA wires are produced with ion implantation or coating, which aims to improve physical properties of TMA wire thus increasing its performance in clinical application.


Keywords


Kawat TMA; beta titanium; karakteristik; TMA wire; beta titanium; characteristics

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mkgk.33761

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