Ectoparasite Infestation among Stray Cats around Surabaya Traditional Market, Indonesia

Shifa Fauziyah(1), Abdul Hadi Furqoni(2*), Norma Farizah Fahmi(3), Adi Pranoto(4), Pradika Gita Baskara(5), Lensa Rosdiana Safitri(6), Zukhaila Salma(7)

(1) Master of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
(2) Laboratory of Human Genetic, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga
(3) Medical Analyst, School of Health Science Ngudia Husada Madura
(4) Master Program of Sport Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Tambaksari, Surabaya, 60132, Indonesia
(5) Master Program of Sport Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Tambaksari, Surabaya, 60132, Indonesia
(6) Statistics Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo, Surabaya, 60115, Indonesia
(7) Master of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestation among stray cats around Surabaya traditional markets. A total of 305 stray cats were collected around 17 traditional markets in Surabaya City and were examined for the presence of fleas with a fine-toothed flea comb. Surveys were conducted during May-June 2019. 228 of 305 stray cats (74.75%) were infested with one species of ectoparasite. The average number of C. felis in every cat was 2.54, while the number of F. subrostratus in every cat was 0.33. Additional data about the gender, pregnancy/maternity, and bodyweight of every cat were recorded. The result of chi-square test shows that there is a significant difference between gender, pregnancy status, and bodyweight by the occurrence of ectoparasites (p=0.008; p=0.00; p=0.00). A total of 878 ectoparasites consisting of flea and lices, namely Ctenocephalides felis (88.27%) as the dominant ectoparasite, followed by Felicola subrostratus (11.73%). The highest infection rate (prevalence) of ectoparasite was found in Pucang Market (16.81%), while the lowest prevalence was found in Mulyorejo Market (0.8%). Coinfection was observed in only a few cats (1.63%). Multiple Regression showed that pregnancy is the most influential factor in the occurrence of fleas (p=0.000). These results should be taken into account among health workers to prevent a possible outbreak of zoonotic diseases caused by fleas.



Ctenocephalides felis; ectoparasite; Felicola subrostratus; market

Full Text:



Abdullah, S., Helps, C., Tasker, S., Newbury, H., Wall, R., 2019, Pathogens in fleas collected from cats and dogs: Distribution and prevalence in the UK, Parasites and Vectors 12, 1–10.

AbuZeid, A., Nahla, H., Eman, M., Amal, K., Ahmed, A., Hamdy, M., 2015. Studies on ectoparasites of stray dogs in Ismailia City. Egypt. Vet. Med. Soc. Parasitol. J. 11, 115–122.

Akucewich, L.H., Philman, K., Clark, A., Gillespie, J., Kunkle, G., Nicklin, C.F., Greiner, E.C., 2002, Prevalence of ectoparasites in a population of feral cats from north central Florida during the summer, Vet. Parasitol, 109, 129–139.

Aldemir, O.S., 2007, Epidemiological study of ectoparasites in dogs from Erzurum region in Turkey, Rev. Med. Vet, (Toulouse), 158, 148–151.

Amin-Babjee, S., 1978, Parasites of the domestic cat in Selangor, Malaysia, Kaji. Vet,10, 107–114.

Bahrami, A.M., Doosti, A., Ahmady-Asbchin, S., 2012, Cat and dogs ectoparasite infestations in Iran and Iraq boarder line area, World Appl. Sci. J. 18, 884–889.

Beck, W., Boch, K., Mackensen, H., Wiegand, B., Pfister, K., 2006, Qualitative and quantitative observations on the flea population dynamics of dogs and cats in several areas of Germany, Vet. Parasitol,137, 130–136.

Beugnet, F., Marié, J. Lou, 2009, Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe,Vet. Parasitol, 163, 298–305.

Billeter, S.A., Metzger, M.E., 2017, Limited Evidence for Rickettsia felis as a Cause of Zoonotic Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis in Southern California, J. Med. Entomol, 54, 4–7.

Bond, R., Riddle, A., Mottram, L., Beugnet, F., Stevenson, R., 2007, Survey of flea infestation in dogs and cats in the United Kingdom during 2005,Vet. Rec. 160, 503–506.

Boudebouch, N., Sarih, M., Beaucournu, J.C., Amarouch, H., Hassar, M., Raoult, D., Parola, P., 2011, Bartonella clarridgeiae, B. henselae and Rickettsia felis in fleas from Morocco, Ann. Trop. Med, Parasitol, 105, 493–498.

Bowman, D., Hendrix, C., Lindsay, D., Barr, S., 2002, Feline clinical parasitology, 1st ed. Iowa State University Press.

Burroughs, J.E., Thomasson, J.A., Marsella, R., Greiner, E.C., Allan, S.A., 2016, Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA, Exp. Appl. Acarol, 69, 87–95.

Cadiergues, M.C., Joubert, C., Franc, M., 2000, A comparison of jump performances of the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis, 1826) and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche, 1835), Vet. Parasitol. 92, 239–241.

Chandra, S., Forsyth, M., Lawrence, A.L., Emery, D., Šlapeta, J., 2017, Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from cats and dogs in New Zealand: Molecular characterisation, presence of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae and comparison with Australia, Vet. Parasitol, 234, 25–30.

Chesney, C., 1995, Species of flea found on cats and dogs in South West England: further evidence of their polyxenous state and implications for flea control, Vet. Res, 136, 356–358.

Chin, H.C., Ahmad, N.W., Lim, L.H., Jeffery, J., Hadi, A.A., Othman, H., Omar, B., 2010, Infestation with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) among students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 41, 1331–1334.

Clark, F., 1999. Prevalence of the cat flea Ctenochepalides felis and oocyte development during autumn and winter in Leicester city, United Kingdom, Med. Vet. Entomol, 13, 217–218.

Clark, N.J., Seddon, J.M., Šlapeta, J., Wells, K., 2018, Parasite spread at the domestic animal - wildlife interface: anthropogenic habitat use, phylogeny and body mass drive risk of cat and dog flea (Ctenocephalides spp.) infestation in wild mammals, Parasit. Vectors 11, 8.

Colombo, F.A., Odorizzi, R.M.F.N., Laurenti, M.D., Galati, E.A.B., Canavez, F., Pereira-Chioccola, V.L., 2011, Detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum RNA in fleas and ticks collected from naturally infected dogs, Parasitol, Res. 109, 267–274.

Coman, B.J., Jones, E.H., Driesen, M.A., 1981, Helminth Parasites and Arthropods of Feral Cats. Aust. Vet. J.,57, 324–327.

Cruz-Vazquez, C., Gamez, E.C., Fernandez, M.P., Parra, M.R., 2001, Seasonal Occurrence of Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis (Siphonaptera:Pulicidae) Infesting Dogs and Cats in an Urban Area in Cuernavaca, Mexico . J. Med, Entomol, 38, 111–113.

Dantas-Torres, F., Otranto, D., 2014, Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: Opening the black box, Parasites and Vectors ,7, 1–25.

De Castro, M.C.M., Rafael, J.A., 2006, Ectoparasitos de cães e gatos da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, Acta Amaz.,36, 535–538.

Dean, S.R., Meola, R.W., 2002, Factors Influencing Sperm Transfer and Insemination in Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Fed on an Artificial Membrane System, J. Med. Entomol, 39, 475–479.

Diakou, A., Di Cesare, A., Accettura, P.M., Barros, L., Iorio, R., Paoletti, B., Frangipane di Regalbono, A., Halos, L., Beugnet, F., Traversa, D., 2017, Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece, PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis, 11, 1–13.

Dyrden, M., Rust, M.K., 1994, The cat flea: biology, ecology and control, Vet. Parasitol, 52, 1–19.

Eduardo, S., Selo, E., Tongon, M., Manuel, M., 1977, Felicola subrostratus (Nitzch) (Malophaga: Trichodectidae) from a native cat- a Philippine record, Philipp. J. Vet. Med, 16, 69–71.

Eisen, R.J., Borchert, J.N., Holmes, J.L., Amatre, G., Van Wyk, K., Enscore, R.E., Babi, N., Atiku, L.A., Wilder, A.P., Vetter, S.M., Bearden, S.W., Montenieri, J.A., Gage, K.L., 2008, Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and their potential role as vectors in a plague-endemic region of Uganda, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 78, 949–956.

ElSeify, M., Aggour, M., Sultan, K., Marey, N., 2016, Ectoparasites in Stray Cats in Alexandria Province, Egypt: A Survey Study, Alexandria J. Vet. Sci, 48, 115.

Gubler, D., 2009, Vector Borne Diseases, Rev Sci Tech 28, 583‑588.

Hadi, U., Soviana, S., 2015, Prevalence of Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Indonesian Dogs, J. Vet. Sci, Technol, 07.

Iannino, F., Sulli, N., Maitino, A., Pascucci, I., Pampiglione, G., Salucci, S., 2017, Fleas of dog and cat: Species, biology and flea-borne diseases, Vet. Ital.,53, 277–288.

Jameson, P., Greene, C., Regnery, R., Dryden, M., Marks, A., Brown, J., Cooper, J., Glaus, B., Greene, R., 1995, Prevalence of bartonella henselae antibodies in pet cats throughout regions of north america, J. Infect. Dis, 172, 1145–1149.

Koutinas, A.F., Papazahariadou, M.G., Rallis, T.S., Tzivara, N.H., Himonas, C.A., 1995, Flea species from dogs and cats in northern Greece: environmental and clinical implications, Vet. Parasitol, 58, 109–115.

Kristensen, S., Haarlov, N., Mourier, H., 1978, A study of skin diseases in dogs and cats, patterns of flea infestation in dogs and cats in Denmark, Veterinaermed 30, 401–413.

Kumsa, B., Abiy, Y., Abunna, F., 2019, Ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats in Bishoftu, central Oromia, Ethiopia, Vet. Parasitol. Reg, Stud. Reports 15, 100263.

Lappin, M.R., Hawley, J., 2009, Presence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of cats in the United States,Vet. Dermatol, 20, 509–514.

Lee, S.E., Jackson, L.A., Opdebeeck, J.P., 1997, Salivary antigens of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Parasite Immunol, 19, 13–19.

Lewis, R.E., 1966. The Fleas (Siphonaptera) of Egypt, New Records, J. Parasitol, 52, 1167.

Liebich, A., Brander, R., Hoppenstedt, K., 1985, Occurence of ticks and fleas in dogs and cats in Germany, Prakt Tierazt 66, 817–824.

Maina, A., Fogarty, C., Krueger, L., Macaluso, K., Odhiambo, A., Nguyen, K., Farris, C., Luce-Fedrow, A., Bennet, S., Jiang, J., 2016, Rickettsial infections among Ctenocephalides felis and host animals during a flea-borne rickettsioses outbreak in Orange County, California, PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis, 11.

McElroy, K.M., Blagburn, B.L., Breitschwerdt, E.B., Mead, P.S., McQuiston, J.H., 2010, Flea-associated zoonotic diseases of cats in the USA: bartonellosis, flea-borne rickettsioses, and plague, Trends Parasitol, 26, 197–204.

Morales-Malacara, J.B., Guerrero, R., 2007, A New Species of Parichoronyssus ( Acari : Dermanyssoidea : Macronyssidae ) from Bats of the Genus Phyllostomus A New Species of Parichoronyssus ( Acari : Dermanyssoidea : Macronyssidae ) from Bats of the Genus Phyllostomus ( Chiroptera : Phyllostomidae ), J. Med. Entomol, 1, 8–13.

Mustaffa-Babjee, A., 1969, Lice and fleas of animals in Malaysia, Malaysian Vet. J. 6, 84.

O’Neal, D., Church, D., McGreevy, P., Thomson, P., Brodbelt, D., 2014, Prevalence of disorders recorded in cats attending primary-care veterinary practices in England, Vet. J. 202, 286–291.

Omonijo, A.O., Sowemimo, O.A., 2017, Prevalence of ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Ijero and Moba LGAs, Ekiti State, Nigeria, Niger, J. Parasitol, 38, 278–283.

Pan American Health Organization, 2003, Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals 3rd edition: Vol. 3, parasitoses, Washington, D.C.

Pugh, R.E., 1987, Effects on the development of Dyplidium canium on the host reaction to this parasite in the adult flea (Ctenocephalides felis), Parasitol. Res, 73, 171–177.

Roy, H., Beckmann, B., Comont, R., Hails, R., Harrington, R., Medlock, J., Purse, B., Shortall, C., 2009, Nuisance insects and climate change, Department Environ Food Rural Affairs, London, UK.

Sahimin, N.B., 2012, Biodiversity and Epidemiology Study of Macroparasites From Stray Cats in Peninsular Malaysia, Master Thesis, Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Science.

Salant, H., Mumcuoglu, K.Y., Baneth, G., 2014. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: Differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites, Med. Vet. Entomol, 28, 314–318.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4173 | views : 3741


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)