Uji Efektivitas Pestisida terhadap Beberapa Patogen Penyebab Penyakit Penting pada Buah Naga (Hylocereus sp.) secara In Vitro

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.9828

Ani Widiastuti(1*), Wahyu Agustina(2), Arif Wibowo(3), Christanti Sumardiyono(4)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Problem caused by pathogen in Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus sp.) cultivation became very important because it decreased significantly the quantity and quality of the fruit production. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of some pesticides against pathogens that cause diseases of dragon fruit in several plantations in the DIY (Sleman and Kulon Progo) and Central Java (Magelang and Batang). Test of fungicide effectiveness was done in vitro on PDA medium (potato dextrose agar) by poisoned food technique. The fungicides were mancozeb 80 %, methyl tiofanat 70 %, copper hydroxide 80 %, chlorotalonil 75 %, mancozeb 64 % + metalaxyl 4 %, mancozeb karbendazim 73.8 % + 6.8 %,benomyl 50 % at a concentration of 1g/L. The bactericides used were streptomycin sulfate 20 % and oxytetracycline 150 AL with each concentration of 1 g/L and 1 mL /L. The results showed that benomyl 50 % was the most effective fungicide to suppress the growth of Fusarium sp. (brown spot), Colletotrichum sp. (anthracnose) and Pestalotiopsis sp. (scab), followed by mancozeb 73.8 % +karbendazim 6.8 % and 73.8 % mancozeb. Bactericide which was able to suppress the growth of Erwinia sp. (stem rot) was streptomycin sulfate 20 %.

 

Gangguan patogen pada buah naga (Hylocereus sp.) saat ini menjadi masalah penting karena secara signifikan menurunkan kuantitas dan kualitas hasil panen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keefektivan beberapa pestisida terhadap patogen penyebab penyakit-penyakit penting pada tanaman buah naga yang ditanaman pada beberapa sentra pertanaman di Propinsi DIY (Sleman dan Kulon Progo) dan Jawa Tengah (Magelang dan Batang). Uji keefektivan pestisida dilakukan secara in vitro pada medium PDA (potato dextrose agar) dengan metode teknik makanan beracun (poisoned food technique). Fungisida yang dipergunakan adalah mankozeb 80%, tiofanat metil 70%, tembaga hidroksida 80%, klorotalonil 75%, mankozeb 64% + metalaksil 4%, mankozeb 73,8% + karbendazim 6,8%, benomil 50% dengan konsentrasi 1g/L, sedangkan bakterisida yang dipergunakan adalah streptomisin sulfat 20% dan oksitetrasiklin 150 AL dengan konsentrasi masing-masing 1 g/L dan 1 mL/L. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari enam jenis fungisida yang dipergunakan, benomil 50% merupakan fungisida yang paling efektif untuk menekan pertumbuhan Fusarium sp. (bercak cokelat), Colletotrichum sp. (antraknos), dan Pestalotiopsis sp. (kudis), diikuti oleh mankozeb 73,8% + karbendazim 6,8% serta mankozeb 73,8%. Untuk fungisida yang lain, efektifitasnya tidak terlalu tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan perlakuan kontrol. Bakterisida yang mampu menekan perkembangan Erwinia sp. (busuk batang) adalah streptomisin sulfat 20%.


Keywords


benomil, chemical control, diseases in dragon fruit, streptomycin sulfate; pengendalian kimiawi, penyakit buah naga, streptomisin sulfat

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.9828

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